al-Ghazali website

Main: Oeuvre: Theology


Theology (ilm al-Kalam wa isul al-din)


  • {المستظهري: فضائح الباطنية وفضائل المستظهرية} al-Mustazhiri or Fada'ih al-Batiniyya wa fada'il al-mutazhiriyya (Infamies of the Esoterics [Ismaili Shia'] and the Renown of the Exoterics [play on word using the Abassid's Caliph al-Mustazhir to mean the Sunni Muslims]) -Ghazali's answer to Isma'ili Shi'is of his time. [M:22; A:22; GAL, S., I, 747, no 23a]
    • Arabic: Streitschrift Des Gazali gegen die Batinijja-Sekte by Ignaz Goldziher. This is a part-edition of “Fada’ih al-batiniyya” with German analysis based on the ms. at the British Library in London in Arabic with German Intro/Translation. (PDF in Arabic with German Intro/Translation.  Also see in German: "Die Streitschrift des Gazali gegen die Ibahiya", Übersetzer : Otto Pretzl, 1933 München. 
    • Arabic: Fada'ih al-Batiniyya (Infamies of the Batinies) In Arabic Ed. A. Badawi (E-text) (PDF(This is the complete edition based on two manuscripts while the Goldziher edition doesn't have the full text.
    • Arabic: Fada'ih al-Batiniyya. Note also that the Badawi edition was not proofread. See introduction to the 2001 edition corrected and commented on by Muhammad 'Ali al-Qtub, al-maktaba al-'asriyya: Beirut, 2001 p.6). (Arabic PDF)
    • English: al-Mustazhiri: Trans. R. McCarthy. (PDF) Partial translation only. ( also in html) A study of this translation was completed as MA thesis and published as Al-Ghazali and Ismailis for more info.
    • Ismaili Rebuttal: Damigh al-batil wa-hatf al-munadil ta'lif `Ali ibn Muhammad ibn al-Walid (d.1215) ; taqdim wa-tahqiq Mustafa Ghalib. Bayrut: Mu'assasat 'Izz al-Din, 1982. 2 vols. (an Isma'ili answer to the al-Ghazali's Mustazhiri from the 13th Century) (PDF) sample. Note: A. Badawi was looking for this work while preparing his edition of Fada'ih but was unable to secure a copy of it, see his introduction.


  • {الاقتصاد في الاعتقاد} al-Iqtisad fil- Itiqad, (Median (lit. Economy) in Belief).  [M:24; A:25]
    • Critical Edition: al-ghazzali's al-iktisad fi'l-itikad edited by H. Atay and I. Cubkcu. Nur Matbaasi, Ankara 1962. (Arabic PDF)
    • Popluar edition: Arabic. (al-Iqtisad fil- Itiqad) word. Also Dr. Insaf Ramdan's edition (Arabic PDF) with explanatory notes. (Damascus: 2003)
    • Partial English translation: Al-Ghazali on Divine Predicates and their Properties: by A. Abu Zayd.  (Lahore: Sh. Muhammad Ashraf, 1970). (PDF)
    • A complete Spanish translation by Miguel Asín Palacios El justo medio en la creencia, compendio de teología dogmática de Algazel (Madrid: Instituto de Valencia de Don Juan, 1929)
    • in Japanese: ガザーリー 中村 廣治朗訳 2000、「イスラーム神学綱要」 上智大学中世思想研究所 『中世思想原典集成11 イスラーム哲学』 平凡社、pp.405-594


  • {الرسالة القدسية} al-risala al-qudsia, (The Jerusalem Epistle) thus called as it was written in Jeruaslem. [M:25; A:26, 133] -note that al-Ghazali included this a section in book 2 of the Ihya'- (PDF) 
    • English/Arabic: The Jerusalem Epistle a dual language edition with English translation and commentary published as: Al-Ghazali's Tract on Dogmatic Theology. Edited, Translated, Annotated and Introduced by A. L. Tibawi, Islamic Quarterly, IX (1965) pp. 65-122.
    • The Jerusalem Epistle. (link)
    • German translation: "Die Dogmatik Al-Gahzalis nach dem II. Buch seines Hauptwerkes" ( "Ihya") H.Bauer, Halle,1912. (link)


  • {المقصد الاسنى في شرح اسماء الله الحسنى} al-maqsad al-asna fi sharah asma' Allahu al-husna, (The best means in explaining Allah's Beautiful Names) [M:33; A:33; K:7475, 12790]
    • Arabic:  Ninety-Nine Names of God:  in Arabic with English Introduction. (Beirut: Dar al-Mashriq, 1982); edited by Fadlou Shehadh. (Arabic PDF) 
    • English: Stade, Robert Charles, Ninety-Nine Names of God in Islam: A translation of the major portion of al-Ghazali's Al-Maqsad al-Asna, Daystar Press, Ibadan, 1970 (PDF). Thanks to Thilo!
    • English Translation by: D. Burrell and N. Daher (ITS description)
    • M. Bejou edition with notes, (Damascus, 1999); (Arabic PDF)
    • Note there is at least two other editions of this book edited by al-Jafan and Dar al-kutub al-`ilmiyah edited by A. Shamasuddin.  


  • {جواهر القرآن ودرره} Jawahir al-Qur'an wa durarah (Jewels of the Qur'an and its Pearls).  [M:37; A:37; GAL, I, 421, no 1 & S., I, 746]
    • Arabic Original, edited by: Dr. Muhammad R. R. al-Qabani, Dar ihya' al-'ulum: Beirut, 1990) Based on the Cairo 1933 2nd ed. p.6. (Arabic PDF)
    • English translation by Muhammad Abul Quasem, Kuala Lumpur: 1977. Complete book (PDF)


  • {فيصل التفرقة بين الإسلام والزندقة} Fayasl al-tafriqa bayn al-Islam wa-l-zandaqa (The Criterium of Distinction between Islam and Clandestine Unbelief)    [M:43; A:43; GAL, S., I, 747 no 13]
    • Arabic: Fayasl al-tafriqa bayn al-Islam wa-l-zandaqa edited by M. Bejou (Damascus: 1993) (Arabic PDF)   Also in word format. As well as Dar al-kutub al-`ilmiyah edited by A. Shamasuddin(?) (Arabic PDF).
    • English: On the Boundaries of Theological Tolerance in Islam: Abu Hamid al-Ghazali's Faysal al-Tafriqa, Sherman A. Jackson (Karachi: Oxford University Press, 2002). Reviewed D. Stewart (JAOS vol. 124.1 2004).
    • German: Uber Rechtgläubigkeit und religiose Toleranz. Eine Ubersetzung der Schrift Das Kriterium der Unterscheidung zwischen Islam und Gottlosigkeit" (Faysal at-tafriqa bayna l-Islam wa-z-zandaqa), eingeleitet, ubersetzt und mit Erlauterungen versehen von Frank Griffel, Zurich: Spur Verlag 1998, 110 p. (introduction, German translation and commentary on al-Ghazali’s Faysal al-tafriqa).


  • {مشكاة الانوار} Mishkat al-Anwar, (Niche of the Lights) Qur'anic Hermeneutics of the chapter of Light. [M:52; A:52, 257, 258; GAL S., I, 751]
    • Arabic: an edition of Cairo 1322 edited/published by Farj Allah Zaki al-Kurdi and Ahmad 'Azzat (PDF)
    • Arabic: Edited by Abu al-'ala 'Afifi, Cairo: Dar al-Qawmiya lil-Tab'a wa al-Nashr, 1964. (PDF ) Still trying to get it, see below perhaps an improvement on 'afifi's editon.
    • Arabic: edited by abdelaziz al-Sirawan, alam al-kutub, 1986. Used many mss and print editions to prepare this one. (pdf)
    • Arabic: Word file from mishkat website (zipped).
    • info about a French Translation (link with summary)
    • Book review of David Buchman, Al-Ghazali, The Niche of Lights / Mishkat al-Anwar. A parallel English – Arabic text Brigham Young University Press, 1999; by Prof. Frank Griffel. (PDF)
    • English translation: Mishkat al-Anwar (Niche of the Lights)
    • For more info and papers on this book see the following announcement on a panel discussion.


  • {إلجام العوام من علم الكلام} Iljam al-awamm 'an ilm al-kalam (Warding off the Masses from Sciences of Theology)  [M:63; A:71; GAL. S: I, pp.746-747 no 11 & 12; K:1129]


  • {الحكمة في مخلوقات الله} Al-hikmah fi makhluqat illah, (Wisdom in God's Creation) [M:74; A:81; GAL no 43]


  • {قانون التإويل} Qanun al-ta'wil, (Methodology of Interpretation) [M:162; A:162]
    • Arabic: Qanun al-ta'wil (Methodology of Interpretation) Edited by M. Bejou Arabic PDF) note that page 26 is not clear on the edges some of the words are hard to make out. (Damascus: 1993)(Arabic PDF). 



NOTE: The numbers listed above in square brackets refer to M = Bouyges, Maurice. Essai de chronologie des oeuvres de al-ghazali (Algazel). Edited by Michel Allard. Beirut: L'Institue de Lettres Orientales de Beyrouth, 1959; A = Badwai, 'Abd al-Rahman, Mu'allafat al-Ghazali. 2nd ed. Kuwait: Wakalat al-Mutbu'at, 1977- numbers as listed. The links are provided to the individual page in Bouyges or Badawi. The GAL listing is given below. The following numbers are offered as mentioned in Bouyges 1959: Brockelmann, Carl. Geschichte der arabischen litteratur. 2 vols. plus 3 suppl. vols., Leiden, E.J. Brill, 1937-42, Second edition: 1943-45.   [GAL, S]   GAL, I: 534-546 (PDF: 1943); S, I: 744-756. (PDF: 1937). Kâtip Çelebi. Lexicon bibliographicum et encyclopaedicum ... ad codicum Vindobonensium Parisiensium et Berolinensis fidem primum edidit Latine vertit et commentario indicibusque instruxit Gustavus Fluegel. .... Arabic text with Latin trans. by Gustav Lebrecht Fluegel. 7 vols., Leipzig: Published for the Oriental Translation Fund of Great Britain and Ireland, 1835-1858.  [K]

If you see a glaring error or have strong opinions, supported by fact or argument, about any work listed above or missing do let me know.


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