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Chapter 4. Poverty and Renunciation 146 
Merits of property 147 
Causes of lawful begging's 165 
Renunciation of the world 167' 
Renunciation of the world 180

Know, 0 dear readers, that the meaning of poverty is not to possess what is necessary to remove wants. 
Not to have a thing what is not necessary is not poverty. If you have what is necessary and if you have 
got control over it you are not a poor man. In this sense, everybody is poor except God, as He is 
everliving. So God alone is above wants and everybody is dependent on Him. God says: God is above wants 
and you are poor-47:38. This is the widest meaning of poverty. We do not mean that in this chapter. 
What we mean here by poverty is want of riches. The necessity of man is unlimited. He who has got no 
riches is poor.
FIVE CLASSES OF POVERTY-(1) The poverty of one who renounced the world. This condition is highest 
because he does not want riches though they come to him. He flees away from riches being displeased and 
takes care of their injuries and harms. This is renunciation. These are the people who have renounced 
the world. (2) The poverty of one who does not hate wealth but likes more to be above wants than to 
live in wants. If wealth comes to him without efforts, he does not refuse. He is a contented poor man. 
(3) He loves wealth but he does not make serious efforts for it. He is called a poor man with love of 
wealth. (4) He is a greedy poor man who has got desire to earn wealth and finds out various means to 
earn it. (5) The poor man who has got want of necessities and has got no wealth. (6) The condition of 
another poor man is highest. It is all one to him whether he has got wealth or no wealth. If wealth 
comes to himjhe is not pleased, and if it does not come, he is not displeased. He is not pleased to see 
that wealth should last with him, nor does he. want that it should go. He does not feel want out of 
riches and does not also consider himself rich in case of having riches. He has got self satisfaction, 
but he is not a rich man. God adorned his heart with the attribute of self satisfaction. He is not a 
slave of riches. The world renunciation is a basis of all his good works and is highest in his case. 
Ordinary world renunciation is harmful in this case, as the Virtues of the virtuous men are the evil 
deeds of those who are close to God. Any engagement with anything except God is
an impediment to meeting with God. Hating the world is an act of engagement. So he who hates the world 
can be said to remain engaged in an action of the world. Your engagement with your self and your 
passion mean that you are busy without God. This is just like the lover and the beloved. He who looks 
to another in presence of his beloved sets up partnership in love. Similarly he
who hates another leaving his act of love lessens his love.
Quran : God says : For the poor Refugees who have been driven out of their houses and properties, who 
seek pleasure from God and his blessings and help God and His Prophet ... God says : For those poor men 
who are confined in the way of God and unable to move in the world ... In these places, the poor have 
been praised.
Hadis:- The Prophet once asked his companions as to who is best. They said : He who is in solvent 
circumstances and pays his dues therefrom. He said : He is good but he is not like one about whom I am 
speaking. The companions asked : 0 Messenger of God, who is best in that case ? He said : The poor man 
who gives his hard earned money in charity.
The Prophet once said to Bilal : Meet with God as a poor man and not as a rich man. He said : God loves 
one having a big family and restraining himself from begging. The Prophet said : The poor among my 
followers will enter paradise 500 years before the rich. The Prophet said : The poor are the best among 
my followers and the weak among them will first roam in paradise before all. The Prophet said : I have 
got two dear things. If anybody loves both, he loves me and if anybody hates both hates me-poverty and 
jihad. It is reported that Gabrial once came to the Prophet and asked him : 0 Muhammad. God tenders you 
salam and asks you : Do you like that I should convert this mountain into that of gold for you and that 
wherever you will go, the mountain also should go with you ? At this the Prophet remained silent for a 
while and then said-O Gabriel the world is a house for one who has got no house and it is a wealth for 
one who has got no wealth. Hee who is not wise hoards for the world. Gabriel told him : 0 Muhammad, may 
God keep you steadfast on this firm truth. it is reported that Jesus Christ was once passing by a man 
who was asleep and he was covered with a cloth. He woke him up and
said: 0 sleeping man rise up and remember God. He said: What do you direct me to do? I have abandoned 
the world for the worldly men. He said to him: 0 dear friend, then sleep. Once the Prophet Moses was 
passing by a man who was sleeping on the ground. Under his head there was a brick and his face and 
beard were on the ground and he was covered with a blanket? The Prophet prayed to God: 0 my Lord, why 
is this servant of yours suffering in the world ? God revealed to him: 0 Moses, don't you know that I 
keep this world far away from one whom I love most. The companion Abu Rafe reported : Once a guest came 
to the Prophet but he had no food in his house. The Prophet sent me to a Jew of Khaiber for a loan of 
some quantity of wheat but the Jew refused it without something in mortgage. I returned to the Prophet 
and informed him. He said: By God, I am trustworthy to the dwellers of heaven and also trustworthy to 
the inmates of the world.

If he had given me a loan I would have surely repaid it. Take my coat of mail and buy some wheat on 
mortgaging it. When he came out, this verse was revealed: Don't prolong your eyes for the things of 
various kinds I have given them for enjoyments, the splendor of the life of this world, through which I 
test them, but the provision of your Lord is better and more enduring-28:131.

The Prophet said : He who among you rises at morn with his body sound, mind serene and with his daily 
livelihood, all the treasures of the world were as it were gathered for him. God said to Moses : When 
you see poverty coming to you say, welcome to the sign of the virtuous. The saint Ata Khorasani said : 
Once a Prophet was passing by the bank of a river and saw a man catching fishes. He threw his net in 
the name of God but did not get any fish. Then he passed by another man who threw his net in the name 
of the devil and got huge quantity of fish. The Prophet said : 0 my God, what is this matter ? You know 
that everything is in your hand. God said to the angels : Show to My servant the states of the two 
fisherman. When Moses saw the high honour kept for the first man and disgrace and dishonor for the 
second man, he said : 0 my Lord, I am satisfied, Our Prophet said: I peeped in-to paradise and saw that 
the majority of its innamtes are poor men. I peeped into Hell and saw that the majority of its inamates 
are the rich and women.
The Prophet said: Poverty is a present for a believer in the world. It is reported in another 
tradition: Among the Prophets the Prophet Solaiman would go last to Paradise for his riches and among 
my followers Abdur Rahman-b-Auf will go last to Paradise on account of his wealth. Jesus Christ said : 
A rich man will enter paradise with great difficulty. The Prophet said : When God loves a servant, he 
surrounds him with dangers and difficulties, and when he loves one most. He gives him Eqtana. The 
companions asked him : What is Eqtana ? The Prophet said It is a condition of one who leaves no 
property and family. The Prophet also said : When you see poverty coming say. welcome to the sign of 
the virtuous. When you see wealth coming say : The punishment of sins is soon coming. Once the Prophet 
Moses asked God : 0 my Lord, who is dearest to Thee among Thy creations? I will love him God said : 
Every poor man. The Prophet Jesus Christ said : Certainly I love poverty and hate wealth.

The wealthy and rich men of Arabia once said to the Prophet: Fix a day for us for interview with you 
and another day for the poor. We will not come to you on the day when they will come to you. The 
Prophet told them: I will not fix till you and the poor men sit together in the same assembly. At once 
the revelation came : Keep patience along with those who invoke their Lord morning and evening seeking 
His pleasure and turn not your eyes from them seeing the adornment of this world's life and don't obey 
those whose hearts I have kept diverted from My remembrance and tell the truth from your Lord. Let him 
who wishes be a believer and let him who wishes be a disbeliever. The rich men were Aqra-bin- Habes. 
Aina-bin-Hasan etc. The poor men were-Hazrat Bilal, Salman-b-Shuaib. Abu Zarr, Khabbab, Abu Hurairah. 
Once a poor blind man sought permission to see the Prophet. At that time, the Prophet was deeply 
engaged in conversation with the honorable chiefs of the Quraish. When the Prophet did not give him 
permission at that time at once the revelation came from God (80:1)-He (Prophet) frowned and turned 
away, because a blind man came to him. Who will inform you that he might grow pure-80: 1?

The Prophet said: On the Judgment day, God will gather together the poor men for taking accounts and 
say: By My glory and honour, I snatched away the world from you not for this
reason that you are small to Me but for bestowing upon you the honour and blessing that I have prepared 
for you. 0 dear servants, enter into this assembly, take out one who among this assembly gave you food 
or cloth by catching his hand. On that difficult day when the people will be afflicted with 
perspiration, he will enter that assembly and take out one who gave him food and cloth and enter 
paradise with him. The Prophet said : Keep company with the poor and acquire blessings from them, as 
there is wealth with them. The companions asked, 0 Messenger of God, what is their wealth ? The Prophet 
said : When the Day of Judgment will come, they will be told : Take hold of the hand of those who gave 
you a handful of food, or a drought of water, or a piece of cloth and enter Paradise.
The Prophet said: When I entered Paradise I heard the sound of the walking of a man and saw that he was 
Bilal. I found also in the upper station of Paradise the poor and their children. In the lower station 
of Paradise, I found a few rich men and women. I asked : 0 my Lord, what is their affair? He said : Two 
red things, gold and silk dress, kept the women pleased and long accounts kept the rich busy. I did not 
first find my rich companion Abdur Rahmen bin-Auf there, but afterwards he came to me weeping. I asked 
: What is the thing which kept you behind ? He said : 0 Prophet of God, I 'c'ould not reach you till I 
crossed Mushiat. I feared that I might not meet you. I asked : What is its reason ? He said : I was 
giving accountof my wealth.

Now look what thing happened in the case of Abdur Rahman who was a reputed companion of the Prophet and 
who was one of the ten persons who had been given good news of Paradise in the world.
Once the Prophet went to a poor man and saw that he had nothing. He said: If his light would have been 
distributed among the inhabitants of the world, it would have been sufficient. The Prophet said : Shall 
I not inform you about the kings of Paradise ? The companions said : 0 Messenger of God, inform us. He 
said Every weak man who is known to the people as weak, having disheveled hairs and dust ridden cloth, 
having only two pieces of cloth and bereft of honour. If he is given oath in the name of God. God 
proves him true.
Hazrat Imran-in-Hussain reported : I had honour and status in the eyes of the Prophet. He told me once 
: 0 Imran, you have got honour before us. Will you go to see the ailing Fatima, daughter of the Prophet 
? I said : 0 Messenger of God, my parents be sacrificed to you. I will go. He rose up and I also 
accompanied him. When we reached the house of Fatima, he knocked at the door and said : Peace be on 
you, shall we enter Hazrat Fatima said : 0 Prophet of God, enter. He said : Myself and my companion ? 
Fatima said : 0 Prophet of God, who is with you ? He said Imran. Fatima said : By One who sent you as 
Prophet, I have got no wearing cloth except a blanket. He said: Do such and such and he hinted it with 
his hand. Fatema . said : If I cover my body therewith, my head remains uncovered. What shall I do. The 
Prophet had an old sheet with him. He gave it to her and said: Cover your head with it. Then Fatema 
gave the Prophet permission to enter with his companion. When they both entered, the Prophet said : 0 
my darling, peace be on you. How are you, Fatema said : By God. I have got pain which has been 
increased by my hunger. Want of food and also. hunger afflicted me very much. The Prophet wept and said 
: 0 my darling, don't be worried. By God, I got nothing to eat for the last three days though I am much 
more honorable to God than you. If I had asked food from my Lord, He would have certainly given it to 
me, but I preferred the next world than this world. Then he placed his hand on his thigh and said: I 
give you good news that you would be the leader of the inmates of Paradise. Fatema said : In that case, 
what will be the position of Pharaoh's wife Asia and Mary, daughter of Imran. The Prophet said : Asia 
will be the leader among her contemporary women and Mary will be the leader among her contemporary 
women and you will be the leader of your contemporary women. You will live in Paradise made of emeralds 
and jewels. Then there will be no sorrow, no noise and no want of peace. By God, I got you married to 
such a person who is the leader of both this world and the next. Hazrat Ali reported that the Prophet 
said : When the people will hate the poor, construct lofty buildings in the world, vie with one another 
in amassing wealth, God will send on them four kinds of punishment-prevalence of famine, oppressions of 
kings and rulers, breach of agreements and oppression of the foes.

Hazrat Abu Hurairah said: Three persons will enter paradise without account-(1) He who wish to wash his 
piece of cloth without getting another to put on, (2) he who has not got two pots to place on the oven, 
(3) and he who wishes to have drink but is' asked : Which kind of drink do you want? In other words, he 
who commits no excess in food, drink and dress will enter paradise without rendering account. It is 
reported that when a poor man came to Hazrat Sufiyan, he said to him: If you are a rich man, I will not 
allow you to come near. When his rich disciples saw him sitting near his poor disciples and distant 
from his rich disciples, the latter wished to be poor. The saint Muammel said : I saw the poor more 
honoured than the rich in the assembly of Sufiyan Saori. A certain sage said : If the unfortunate man 
feared Hell as he fears poverty, he would have got salvation from both. If he hoped for paradise as he 
hopes for riches, he would have got them both, If he feared God secretly as he fears men openly, he 
would have been fortunate in both the worlds.

Hazrat Ibn Abbas said: He who respects riches and dishonors poverty, is cursed. Loqman advised his son 
: 0 darling, do not hate a man dressed with old cloth, as your Lord and his Lord is the same. The saint 
Ihya-bin-Ma'az said : To love the poor belongs to the conduct of the prophets. To sit in their assembly 
belongs to the conduct of the vituous. To flee from their company is the sign of the hypocrites. What 
Muwayiah, Ibn Amer and other persons gave as gifts to Hazrat Ayesha amounted daily to lacs of dirhams. 
She used to distribute them to the poor, yet her over- garment had stitches. Her maid told her: If you 
kept one dirharm, I would have purchased therewith meat for you and you could have broken fast 
therewith. He said : If you had reminded me of it, I would have done it.

The Prophet used to give her advice and say: If you wish to live with me in paradise, live the life of 
the poor and shun the society' of the rich. Don't part with your overgarment till it is stitched. Once 
a man came to Ibrahim bin adbam with ten thousand dioramas. The man requested him to accept it Ibrahim 
said to him : Do you wish that by accepting the ten thousand dirhams, I would cut off my name from the 
register of the poor I shall never do it.

The Prophet said: whose is guided to Islam,gets the provision of his livelihood and whose is satisfied 
with both should be thankful. He said : 0 assembly of the poor, give pleasure from your heart to God 
and you will then get the merits of poverty or else not It appears from these traditions. that the 
greedy poor man will not get meats for his poverty. The Prophet said : There is key to everything and 
the key to paradise is love for the poor They will sit with God on the Resurrection Day for their 
patecnce. The Prophet said : The poor man who is dearest to God is he who remains satisfied with what 
is with him and with the provision God gave him The Prophet said : 0 God, give sufficient provision for 
the family members of Muhammad. The Prophet said: There will be no poor or rich man who will not wish 
and say on the Resurrection Day : It would have been sufficient if there would have been for me bare 
provision of life in the world God revealed to the Prophet Ismail : Search Me near one who is broken 
hearted. The Prophet said : If a poor man remains satisfied, there is nobody better then him. The 
Prophet said : God will say on the resurrection day : Where are those among My creations who are 
pure-souled? The angels will ask: 0 God who are those people ? He will say They are those Muslims who 
remain satisfied with My gifts and with what I decreed for them Take them to Paradise, They will take 
there food and drink in paradise, while others will remain confined to rendering accounts.

Sayings of Sages. Hazrat Omar said: Greed is poverty and despair is wealth. He who remains satisfied 
with being despaired of what is with the people remains free from them or indifferent. The sage Abu 
Mas'ud said : No day passes on which an angel does not proclaim below the Throne : 0 son of Adam, a 
little provision sufficient to sustain your life is better than enormous riches which attract towards 
infidelity. The sage Abu Darda said There is no man who has got no defect in his intellect. The reason 
of this is that when the world comes to him with great wealth and property, he becomes satisfied but 
the days and nights which are destroying his span of life do not grieve him. 0 son of Adam, alas for 
you. When your span of life is decreasing, what is the good of increasing wealth ? Some wise man was 
asked: What is wealth?
nr i
He said : Your little hope and your satisfaction with necessary things.

It has been narrated that Hazrat Ibrahim bin-Adham was a
great ruler of Khorasan. One day he looked down from his
lofty palace and saw that a man was eating a loaf in his hand in the courtyard of his palace and after 
this he fell asleep. Hazrat Ibrahim told one of his servants : When he gets up from sleep, take him to 
me. When he awoke from sleep, the servant took him to the king who said to him: 0 man, have you eaten 
bread in hunger ? The man said : Yes. He asked him : Have you been satisfied with it ? He said : Yes. 
He asked: Have you slept with comfort? He said: Yes. Then Ibrahim said within himself : What shall I do 
with this world ? If I get this much, I should remain satisfied. Once a man was passing by the side of 
Amer-bin-Qais when he was eating vegetables with salt. He told the sage : 0 servant of God, are you 
satisfied with these small things ? The sage said : Shall I not give you information .-of a man who 
remains satisfied with a thing more insignificant than this he said : Inform me. The sage said : He is 
the man who remains satisfied with this world in lieu of the next world. The saint Muhammad-bin-Wa'se 
use to pick up dried bread mix it with water and eat it with salt and say : He who is satisfied with 
this little food in this world is free from being needy to the people. The great saint Hasan Basari 
said : God cursed those for whom He look oath but who did not believe it. Then he read the Quranic 
verse - "There is provision for you in the sky and what you have been promised with." By the heaven and 
earth, that is certainly true. The companion Abu Zarr was once seated amongst the people when his life 
came to him and said : Are you seated amongst these people while there is nothing in the house to eat ? 
He said : 0 darling, there is a great problem before me. None but the God fearing can be free from it. 
Being satisfied with this word, she retired. The saint Jun-Nun said : He who does not have patience at 
the time of hunger is near disbelief. Once a saint was asked : What is your wealth ? He said : To 
harbor good ideas openly, to cherish hope in mind and not to hope for what is in the hands of the 
people. It is reported that God revealed in one of the ancient scriptures : 0 son of Adam, if you get 
the whole world, you will get nothing but the quantity of food that is necessary for you, when I give 
you from the world the quantity of food that
is necessary for you, I put its account on others and do you good. For this reason, apoet said 
Seek what you wish from God, not from men,
Be satisfied in joy,
there is honour therein.
On friends and relatives,
don't be burden.
Rich is he who hopes from God, not from men.
Another poet said
This hoarded wealth is not for you,
but only for your heirs,
Only that wealth will remain for you which you spend.
Spend money with youthful vigour and with faith
Be generous to one who
distributes wealth.
The honour and property
gained from Him perish
The satisfaction arising therefrom does not get old.
SUPERIORITY OF POVERTY OVER WEALTH. Know, 0 readers, that the learned differed whether wealth is better 
than poverty or poverty is better than wealth. The savants Junaid, Khowas and other held that poverty 
is better than wealth. It is true in a general sense but doubt arises in two cases - firstly in the 
case of patient poor man who has no greed for wealth but remains satisfied with his lot and secondly in 
the case of a wealthy man who spends his wealth in good works and has got no greed for amassing wealth. 
The rich man who spends money in good works in better than the greedy poor man. The rich man
who remains engrossed in his riches is not better than the poor man who has greed for wealth. It is 
related that the poor once complained to the Prophet saying : the rich men do all acts of piety namely 
charity, Zakat pilgrimage. Jihad ect. The Prophet taught them certain words in praise of God and 
reminded them that the merits gained by the rich for this Doa (invocation) will be much less than those 
gained by the poor. The Prophet said that it is the grace of God and that God gives it to whom He 
wishes. the saint Ata quoted this Hadis and said that the rich are better than the poor. The meaning is 
reverse as it was said in that Hadis that the merits of the poor gained by the Doa are greater.
It was reported by Anas that a representative of the poor came to the Prophet and said : I have come to 
you as a messenger of the poor. He said : Welcome to you and to those from whom you have come. They are 
a class of people whom I love. He said 0 Messenger God, the rich have taken away all the virtues. They 
make pilgrimage but we cannot do it. They make Umrah, but we cannot do it. If they fall all, they spend 
their excess wealth and gain virtues. The Prophet said : Inform the poor from me. The poor man among 
you who keeps patience and hopes for virtues will have such fortunes which the rich would not get. (1) 
The first fortune is that there is a very lofty place in paradise and the inmates will look at it as 
the people of this earth look at the stars on the firmament. The poor prophets, the poor martyrs and 
the poor believers will only get it. (2) The second fortune is that the poor will enter paradise half a 
day (500 years) earlier than the rich. (3) The third fortune is that when the rich man says 
'Sobhanallah. Walhamdo Lillah La I1aha Illah and Allho Akbar' as the poor recite them they will not get 
equal merits like the poor even though they spend thousands of Dirhams. This is the condition of every 
vituous act. The representative of the poor returned to them and said what the Prophet had said to him. 
The poor then said : We are satisfied. This proves that for every divine service, there is additional 
merit for the poor.
The ultimate goal in this world is to attain the love of God, to seek His pleasure and to tread the 
path towards Him. It is not possible to achieve these in the midst of heavy engagements. It is true 
that poverty keeps a man engaged like wealth. To love the world is the real engagement as love of the 
world and love of God do not unite. He who loves anyone keeps themselves engaged in
the world. Those who are deprived of the world keep themselves engaged in search of it. If it happens 
that you have rescued` yourself from the love of wealth which is like water in you sight, then it is 
all one whether you have got wealth or not. Every one uses it according to his necessity and to get it 
in times of necessity is better than not to have it. The hungry man walks in the path of death, not in 
the path of God. If you are engaged in the management of wealth, it is true that you live far away from 
the thoughts and anxieties of poverty but you are in the disaster of happiness. The disaster of 
happiness is more acute than that of adversity. Man cannot be free from it. For this, the companions 
said : We have been tried by the hardship of sorrows but we remained patient at them.

Jesus Christ said: Don't look at the wealth of the worldly men as the radiance of their wealth will 
take away the light of your faith. Some wise man said : The disaster of wealth takes away the sweetness 
of faith. The Prophet said ; Every nation has its object of worship and the object of worship of this 
nation is silver and gold. The Prophet saw the world coming to him in beautiful appearance and said : 
Be off from me. The Prophet said : Contentment of mind lies not in riches, but in peace of mind. When i 
t is difficult, i t is better for the general masses not to have riches. If one possesses it, it is 
better for him to give it in charity and spend it in good works, as the possessor of wealth is led to 
the love of the world. A man goes away from the next world in proportion to his attachment to this 
world and goes away from the love of God and from God in proportion to this attachment to things other 
than God. When you will cut off the means of attachment to this world, you will slip away from the pomp 
and grandeur of the world. When mind turns away from things other than God and resigns to Him, it 
returns to God as mind cannot live in vacuum. There is in the world nothing but God and things other 
than God. He who proceeds towards things other than .God shifts away from God. He who proceeds towards 
God shifts away from things other than God. The proportion he advances towards one thing shifts away 
proportionately from another thing and the proportion he comes near one thing, goes away 
proportionately from another thing. It is just like distance of the west and the east. He who goes 
towards the west shifts from the east and vice versa. Similarly he who loves the world goes away from 
the next world. So he who loves the world very dearly goes farthest away from the next world.
The substance of the above talk is that the question who is better among the two rich or poor can be 
answered from having a look to one's attachment to the wealth. If the poor man and the rich man are 
equal in their attachment to wealth, their status is equal. Some ancient sage said : The worshiper who 
seeks the world is like one who wants to extinguish fire by dried grass or like one who washes his hand 
with clarified butter to remove fat from hands. The saint Solaiman Darani said : The poor man who does 
not get his coveted things and then breaths a long sigh is better than the rich man who does divine 
service for one thousand years. The saint Zohhak said He who enters a market and greeds for a thing and 
then keeps patience to acquire virtues, is better than one who spends one thousand Dinars in the way of 
God. A man asked the saint Bashar bin Hares : Pray from me to God. I am having difficulties in 
maintaining family. He said : When your wife says to you : We have got no bread or wheat, pray for me 
as your invocation at that time is better than mine. He used to say
The rich worshiper is like a garden in cowdung. The poor worshiper is like a necklace of pearls in the 
neck of a most beautiful woman. Hazrat Abu Bakr Siddiq said : 0 God, when my passion wants to fulfill 
its desire. I pray then to you for disgrace and I pray to you to be deprived of a thing which exceeds 
necessity. The best condition of possessing wealth is to earn lawful thing and spend lawful thing. For 
this also one shall have to wait and render accounts on the Resurrection Day. To wait for long to 
render accounts is also a punishment. For this reason the companion Hazrat Abdur Rahman-bin-Auf will be 
admitted in to paradise with delay as he would be engaged in rendering accounts. This is the tradition 
of the Prophet. The companion Abu Dara'a said: That I should have a shop near a mosque and that I 
should not miss a prayer or Zikr are dearer to me than that I should earn fifty dinars and spend them 
in the way of God. The people asked him: What is the harm ? He said : There is the fear of rendering 
accounts in that case.

The saint Sufiyan said: The poor selected three things and the rich three. The poor selected peace of 
mind, vacant mind and scanty accounts and the rich selected self-trouble, engagement of mind and a 
strict rendering of account. The saint Ibn Ata said Freedom from want is an attribute of God. That is 
good for this
reason that when a man become indifferent of having wealth or no wealth and when they become equal to 
him, his condition is like the above.
Greedy poor and greedy rich man. Who is better among these two? When a man searches wealth and makes 
efforts to acquire it and then wealth comes to him, two conditions appear before him-when he has no 
wealth and when he has wealth. If he earns wealth up to the necessity of his livelihood and walks in 
the path of religion, it is better for him to earn such amount of wealth because poverty will keep him 
engage in earning wealth and prevent him from remembering God. For this reason the Prophet used to 
pray: 0 God, give me provision necessary for maintenance of Muhammad's family. He said : Poverty brings 
one near infidelity. The meaning of this poverty is such pressing want the removal of which is 
necessary for a man. If the object of earnings is not for treading the path of virtues; then poverty is 
better than riches as both are equal in the love of wealth and both do not abstain from committing sin. 
The Prophet said ; The Holy Spirit has infused into my mind: Love what you wish but you shall have to 
leave it. There is warning herein that separation from dear things is very painful. So love One from 
whom there is no separation. He is God, the Merciful. You should not love one whom you shall have to 
leave. That is the world. When you will love the world, you will not love to meet with God. If you die 
in that state, you shall have to leave it and you will get pain in proportion to your love for it. Now 
it is clear to you that poverty is better and more honorable than riches.
Two exceptions: There are two exceptions to the above proportions. The first is to have riches like 
that of Hazrat Ayesha. To her it was equal to possess wealth or not to posses it, rather to have wealth 
was more beneficial to her than not to have wealth because she gave away all her wealth to the poor and 
the needy. The second exception is to have wealth less than what is absolutely necessary, as it leads 
to infidelity. It is in no circumstances better. He should have such wealth as can save his life and 
give strength in him and as can keep him far away from infidelity and sin. This is the meaning of 
poverty and riches. .
The duties of the poor in poverty. The duties of the poor at the time of their poverty are secret, 
opens and connected with works. (1) The hidden duty is not to be dissatisfied with the
action of God. It is true that the person who takes cupping is
unwilling to take it on account of pain but he does not hate
cupping, nor the cupper but entreats him at time. Similarly the
disaster of poverty cannot be disliked as it is the work of God.
Otherwise the merits gained by poverty is spoiled. To this effect,
the Prophet said : 0 the assembly of the poor, give satisfaction to God from the core of your heart and 
then you will get the merits of poverty or else you will not get them. The next higher stage of poverty 
is to rest satisfied with poverty and not to hate it. The next higher stage is to seek poverty, to rely 
on God in mind and not to love things beyond necessity. Hazrat Ali said : God sometimes gives 
punishment by poverty and sometimes gives rewards. When it is a reward, the signs of reward are to 
treat well with the people, to obey God, not to complain against poverty and to express gratefulness to 
God for poverty. The signs of punishment are to treat badly with the people, to remain engaged in sins, 
to give up worship and to remain dissatisfied with luck.
,, (2) The second duty of the poor during poverty is to abstain from beaging and not to express sorrows 
for poverty to anyone. The Prophet said : God loves the poor man having a big family, who abstains from 
begging. The saint Sufyan said: To express good thoughts at the time of want is good. A certain sage 
said : To keep poverty concealed is a treasure house of virtues.
(3) The third duty of the poor during 'poverty is not to submit to the rich for their riches. Hazrat 
Ali said : In order to get virtues from God, it is better for a rich man to become humble to a poor 
man. Still more is the pride of a poor man relying of God over a rich man. This is the position of the 
poor. The lower position is not to have connection with the rich and not to desire to join in their 
assembly. The saint Sufiyan said : When a poor man keeps company with the rich know that he is 
ahypocrite. When he frequents the ruler, know that he is a dacoit. An Aref said : When a poor man 
keeps'company with the rich his faith lessens. When he greeds from them, pledge of protection goes from 
him. When he lives in their midst, he becomes misguided.
MODE OF ACTIONS OF THE POOR : Don't be negligent in worship on account of poverty. If there is any 
excess wealth, do not hesitate to spend it to remove the wants of others, as charity of the poor to the 
poor is like jihad. There is a great merit in a poor
man's spending a little than that of a rich man possessing enormous riches : The Prophet said : To 
spend a dirhams becomes sometimes better than spending one lac dirhams in the way of God. He was 
questioned : 0 Messenger of God, how does it happen. He said : A certain rich man spends one lac 
dirhams out of his enormous riches and a certain poor man possessing only two dirhams spends one 
dirhams in charity with a cheerful heart. In this circumstance, the spending of one dirhams by the poor 
man becomes better than the charity of one lac dirhams by the rich man.

There are three stages of hoarding provisions: -The first stage is the highest and it is the stage of 
the truthful-not to hoard food except for one day and one night. The second stage is the stage of the 
God fearing man-to hoard food for 40 days. Beyond this, he becomes guilty of cherishing long hope. (3) 
The third stage is that of all religious men to hoard food for one year. This is the lowest stage. He 
who hoards beyond it is included within the ordinary people. The Prophet divided food-stuffs among his 
wives in this way. He used to give some of his food-stuffs for a year and some for one day and one 
night. Hazrat Ayesha and Hafsa are included within the second class.

METHOD OF RECEIVING UNASKED FOR GIFTS: The poor shall have to look to three things for accepting the 
gifts of others-(1) source of gifted thing, (2) object of the gifts, (3) and the necessity of 
acceptance. With regard to the source of gift, the money of gift must be lawful and above doubt. 
Regarding the object of gifts the giver might have got many purposes-to get self-satisfaction to search 
the love of the receiver, to get merits from God, to get name and fame etc. If it is a present, there 
is no harm to accept it. The Prophet used to accept present from some people and reject it from others. 
He used to accept presents from the Quraish, Saqafi, Dausee and the Refugees and Ansars. Once a purse 
of 50 coins was presented to Fathe Musolli who said that Ata had recited this Hadis : If a thing is 
presented without asking and it is rejected God's gift is rejected. Then he took one coin out of the 
purse and returned the rest. The Saint Hasan Basari used to receive presents from his disciples. The 
saint Tamim used to receive small gifts from his disciples, not too much or rich presents. The saint 
Bashar Hafi said : I do not accept presents from anybody except Sarri Sakti as his renunciation seems 
to be
good. He becomes pleased to give something from his hand and I help him in his satisfaction. Once a man 
from Khorasan took some money to Junaid who said : Distribute it among the poor. He said : I have not 
come to you with that intention. He said Shall I live up to the time of its enjoyment. He said : I 
don't wish that you should spend it in purchasing vegetables but in getting sweet things. He then 
accepted it. The man of Khorasan said There is nobody at Bagdad whose benefit is greater than yours. 
The saint Junaid said : I should not accept from anybody but from men like you.
Second rule. If the donee gifts for acquiring merits, the poor receiver will examine whether the gift 
is fit to be accepted. If he falls in doubt, he should not accept it. If the poor acceptor is engaged 
in private sin and thinks that if the giver knows it, he will not gift it to him, his acceptance of 
gift in that case is unlawful.
Third rule. If the purpose of gift is to earn name and fame or show of honesty, it should be rejected. 
If accepted, it will help his dishonest purpose. Whatever was given to Sufyan Saori, he used to reject 
it and say: Had I known that they would not broadcast it. I would have accepted it.
NECESSITY OF ACCEPTING GIFTS: The Prophet said: When the receiver of gift accepts it on account of 
necessity the giver does not get more merit than him. He also said : Whatever is given without asking 
should be taken to be a provision from God. In other words, he shall not reject it. Some wise man said 
: If a man does not accept what is offered to him, he will fall in such a disaster that if he want 
something in future from others, they won't give it. The saint Sarri Sakti used to send presents to 
Imam Ahmed. Once he returned his present Sarri Sakti said to him : 0 Ahmed, fear the danger of 
rejection, as the danger of rejection is greater than that of acceptance. Imam Ahmed said to him : Say 
what, you have said : He repeated it. Imam Ahmed then said : I returned it as I have a provision of one 
month with me. Keep it with you and give it to me after one month. The Prophet said The son of Adam has 
got no right except in three things, such a food as can keep his backbone erect, (2) such a cloth as 
can keep his private parts concealed, (3) and such a house as can protect him from cold and heat. 
Beyond this, the extra wealth is included within wealth which is to be accounted for. There is merit in
whatever you take for these three things. If you accept things beyond these without committing sins, 
you shall have to render accounts for them. And if you become disobedient to God, you shall have to 
receive punishment.
A certain man gave instructions at the time of his death to distribute his property to three groups of 
persons-those who are strong, those who are charitable and those who are above wants. He was asked 
about their particulars. He said : The strong men are those who rely on God. The charitable persons are 
those who have good thoughts about God and the rich are those persons who give up everything for God. 
The poor man ought to look that whatever he accepts, he accepts from God and not from the giver as the 
latter is only a means. God made him submit to him to make charity.
It is reported that a certain person invited the sage Shaqiq Balakhi with his fifty followers to take 
feast. The man placed all kinds of his food on the dining cloth. Shaqiq sat on it and said to his 
disciples : The master o7the house is saying : My food is unlawful for one who says that I have not 
prepared this food and placed it before him. At this, all of them went out except a young man who was 
lower than them in piety. The master of the house said to Shaqiq : What was your intention to say this 
? He said ; I told them this to examine my disciples in Tauhid.
The Prophet Moses said : 0 my Lord, you have entrusted my food to the children of Israil. They give me 
food for one night and then again on the night following. God revealed to him : Thus I reward my 
friends. I give their food to the oppressors, so that they may get rewards. So if anybody gives 
something in charity, he must believe that God has given him direction to give that thing for charity.
IN WHAT CASES BEGGING IS NOT LAWFUL? Begging is principally unlawful for three reasons. The first 
reason is that it is complaint against God if one expresses his wants. In other words, he expresses 
want of kindness of God. If a slave begs of others, he dishonors his master. Similarly if a slave of 
God begs of others, he defames God and for this reason begging is unlawful. In case of dire necessity, 
it becomes lawful, as it is lawful in extreme cases to eat a dead body. The second reason is that by 
begging one introduces himself as worthless before others. To
humble oneself before anybody other than God is not the duty of a believer. Others also stand in need 
of God like him. So if one is to beg, he must beg of his master and not of slaves. The third reason is 
that the beggar puts him to shame and difficulty from whom something is begged of, Sometimes he does 
not give willingly or with satisfied mind. He is compelled sometimes out of shame or other reasons to 
give the beggar. So giving trouble to anybody is unlawful.
The Prophet said : To beg of men is a disgraceful thing. He did not make anything so disgracing as 
begging. Even an unlawful thing becomes lawful in case of dire necessity. It is just like the drinking 
wine by a man whose throat has been choked by food and then nothing but wine is found there. The 
Prophet said He who begs inspite of having wealth, increases burning charcoal of Hell for himself. He 
also said : He who begs inspite of his possessing necessary thing will come on the Resurrection Day 
with his face bare of flesh with only bones. In another narration, his begging will make his face 
filled up with scratches. Once the Prophet took oath of allegiance from a people on condition that they 
would hear and obey him. At that time he said. to them: Don't seek anything from people. The Prophet 
used to say : He who begs of me, I shall give him and he who does not beg, God will give him. He is 
dear to us who does not beg of us. He also said: Be free from begging of men. The lesser you beg, the 
better. The companions asked : Shall we beg of you ? He said : Beg of me a little.
Once Hazrat Omar heard that after every Magrib prayer one man used to beg. He told one of his people : 
Give him food. He gave him food. Again Hazrat Omar heard that he was begging. At this he told.that man 
: Have I not told him to give good ? He said : I gave him food Hazrat Omar then saw that under his hand 
he had got a bag full of bread. He told him: You are not a beggar but a merchant. He then took his bag 
of bread and spread it out to the camels of Zakat, gave him lashes and said : Don't do it again. This 
shows that begging is unlawful.
In case of necessity, begging becomes lawful but necessity admits of four stages-dire necessity, 
special necessity, little necessity and want of necessity. The case of dire necessity is in the case of 
a man when he is extremely hungry and reaches the point of death for want of food or at least when he 
fears it, when
he falls ill, when he does not get cloth to cover his shame. In these and similar cases, begging 
becomes lawful. The second stage is a bare necessity and not pressing necessity. A sick man has got the 
necessity of medicine. He can beg of it. A man can walk on foot, but his asking for hire of a camel is 
lawful. The third stage is of little necessity. It is just like the asking of a shirt from a person in 
order to cover his body for which he has no means. It is just like the begging of a man for curry when 
he has got bread. In case of no necessity, begging is unlawful.

IN WHICH CASES BEGGING IS LAWFUL? There are three conditions of a beggar -(1) to believe that he is 
giving with a satisfied mind, (2) To believe that he is giving with a dissatisfied mind. (3) in the 
third case, there is doubt whether he is giving with a satisfied mind or dissatisfied mind. In the 
first case, taking charity is lawful and in the second case it is unlawful. In the third case it is 
doubtful whether it is lawful or unlawful. At this time of doubt, he must ask his conscience. The 
Prophet said: Whatever raises doubt in mind, leave it and whatever does not raise doubtin mind, accept 
it. The Prophet said : To eat out of own's own earnings is most pure. He also said : He who begs having 
riches begs of burning charcoal. Let him seek little or more of it. This is a clear Hadis prohibiting 
beggary. The Prophet said Don't be greedly to seek the riches of others possessing something given by 
God. The companions asked : What is its amount? He said : Morning food and night food, In another 
tradition : He who begs having 50 or 40 dirhams or gold equivalant to is value begs importunately. In 
this connection we shall have to remember that the Prophet said : The son of Adam has got no right 
except in three things-(1) such a quantity of food as can keep his backbone erect, (2) such a quantity 
of cloth as can keep his private parts concealed (3) and such a house as can protect him. Beyond these 
things, he shall have to ren for account. This is the basis of necessity having regard to kind, 
quantity and time (1) Kind. Whatever is necessary for himself and his family members and whatever 
animal he possesses are included within this class. (2)Quantity. Regarding the quantity of cloth 
necessary for a religious man, it is one piece of wearing cloth, one shirt, one piece of hand kerchief 
and one piece of trouser. What is more than one piece is not necessary. Household untensils and 
furnitures are also likewise. Regarding daily quantity of food it is one and a half poa. Take what is 

for bare livelihood. Enjoyment of curries is additional. There should be no grandeur in house. Want is 
what a man lacks in his food for one day and one night, a house for his protection and a
cloth for his wearing.

There are three stages of begging for future-(1) begging for the necessaries of tomorrow, (2) begging 
necessary things for 40 or 50 days (3) and begging of the necessary things for one year. If one 
possesses food for himself and family members for for one year, begging is unlawful. For this reason, 
the tradition says that he who possesses 50 dirhams is rich, as 50 dirhams are sufficient for a man for 
a year.

Three classes of beggers; One class of beggars do not beg of ethers and do not accept even when 
offered. These beggars are of the highest order and will live in paradise. The second class of beggars 
do not beg anything of others but accept it when offered. These beggars will also live in Paradise. The 
third class of beggars beg In case of dire necessity. They are the companions of fortune and will live 
with the truthful.
When Ibrahim Adham came once to Shaqiq Balakhi, the latter said to him : In what condition have you 
left your poor people? He said : I have left them in such a condition that if they are given something 
they would express gratefulness and if they are not given anything, they would keep patience. Shaqiq 
said When I left Balkh, I found my neighboring dogs in that condition. Ibrahim asked him : 0 Abu Ishaq, 
what attributes should the poor possess according to. you ? Shaqiq said : In our opinion, if the poor 
are not given of what they beg, they should also express gratefulness..If they are to be given 
something, it should be given to those who are more needy among them. Ibrahim kissed his hand and said: 
0 my teacher, you are true.
A certain man saw Abu Ishaq Nuri to beg something from men spreading out his hands and said : I was 
surprised at it and though it bad. I informed it to Junaid who said : Don't think it bad, and you 
should not think that Abu Ishaq Nuri is asking something from men, rather he accepts from men that they 
may gain virtues in the hereafter and no hardship reaches them. It seemed as if he hinted at this 
Hadis: The upper hand is better than the lower. Then Junaid said : Bring a balance. He then weighed one 
jundred dirhams, took a handful of dirhams from
another purse and mixed them with those and said : Take these dirhams to Nuri. I thought in mind that 
it is a wonder that Junaid took a balance for weight and then mixed one hundred dirhams with unmeasured 
dirhams and sent it to Nuri. I felt ashamed to ask him the reason. I took the entire purse and went to 
Nuri who took a balance measured one hundred dirhams and said : Take this one hundred dirhams to Junaid 
and tell him : I shall not take it from him but I accept the additional dirhams. At this, my wonder 
increased more and on asking Nuri he said : Junaid is a wise man. He wants to take hold of both the 
ends of along rope. He weighed one hundred dirhams for his sake, so that be may gain rewards in the 
hereafter. He then took one handful of dirhams without weighing and gave it in the way of God. Whatt 
has been given in the way of God. I accepted and what he gave for his own sake. I look it to Junaid who 
wept and said : He accepted his money and returned my money to me. God is the Helper.
Now took how bright and pure was their minds and what' sincere was their desires to worship. Even one 
of them: could speak of the thoughts of the inner mind of another on account of the broadening of their 
breast as a result of their eating lawful things, keeping their minds clear from attaellment of the 
world and advancing towards God with hopes and desires. He who does not admit it before experience in 
the path is a fool just at a man does not admit it easy before taking any medicine to have purgation. 
If anybody does not acquire the merit of Kashf after hard labour and does not think it possible for 
others, he is like a person who takes.medicine for purgation but it does not work for some internal 
diseass. This is ignorance. He who has got Kashf reaches the stage of Ainul Eqin or veritable sight by 
eyes. It is higher than sight by knowledge (Ilmul Eqin). He who is free from Ilmul Egin or Ainul Egin 
is out of the group of believers. Their 'minds are dead and they are the followers of the devils.
Renunciation of the world is an honored stage out of many stages of the sojourners towards the path of 
religion. This stage is also regulated like other stages in respect of knowledge, condition and action. 
In accordance with the sayings of the sages, all the doors of Iman returns to sure faith, speech and 
action. But
out of these, the stage of speech can be established on the stage of condition on account of its 
expression. The object of speech is not speech but expression of thoughts of mind. If speech does not 
come out of condition, it is called Islam not Iman. Knowledge is the cause of condition and condition 
is the cause of knowledge. Action comes out of condition and action is the result of condition.

STATEMENT OF CONDITION: We shall call this condition
renunciation. In other worlds, it is the turning away from a thing in
order to get a better thing than it. So he who does not love a thing
turns away from that thing and he who loves a thing turns towards
that thing and is attached to it. Two things are necessary for renunciation. (1) Firstly, to turn away 
from a thing and to be attached towards a thing. So the latter is better than the first. He who has 
renunciated riches and wealth is called one who renunciated the world. He who sells his world in lieu 
of the next world is called one who renounces the world. He who sells his next world in exchange of 
this world, is one who renounces the next world. So the meaning of renunciation is to love a dear thing 
and to advance towards another dear thing which is dearer than the former. He who renounces things 
other than God, even the highest Paradise and does not love things other than God is Jahed or who 
renunciated the world. Who turns away from the worldly comforts and seeks the comforts of the next 
world, his position is lower than the former. The meaning of Tauba is to forsake sins and the meaning 
of renunciation is to leave such lawful things as are the causes of physical pleasure. So to leave the 
lawful things in the world is called renunciation. To leave things other than God and turn towards God 
is renunciation. This is the highest stage. Someone addressed Ibnul Mobarak : 0 one who renunciated the 
world. He replied : Caliph Omar-bin-Abdul Aziz is the person who renunciated the world, as the world 
came to him with its fineries but he rejected them. What subjects shall I leave? I have gotnothing.
KNOWLEDGE: The knowledge which is the fruit of condition is this. The thing which is given up in 
comparison with the thing accepted is worse and it is the fruit of the knowledge of a business man. He 
knows that what he accepts in lieu of his sold thing is better and for that he is more attached to it. 
He who has not got this knowledge loses no attachment to the thing sold. Similarly he who knows that 
what is near God is everlasting and that the next- world is ever-lasting and better, accepts jewel in
lieu of short- lived ice, as jewel is better than ice. The owner of ice knows it well and is eager to 
sell it in lieu of jewel. Similarly he knows the world as temporary and therefore accepts the ever 
lasting next world. The world is short-lived like ice. Ice melts at the touch of sun-shine, but the 
next world is a jewel without end. So there should be the knowledge of this world and the next world. 
The greater this knowledge, thegreater the strength. He whose belief in this is sure and firm sells 
this world in lieu of the next world and sells his riches and wealth. God says-(9:111) Surely God 
purchased from the believers their lives and properties in exchange that they will get Paradise. God 
even informs us that there is profit in this business in verse-9:111-Give good news for your 
transaction with God which you have carried on. So for the purpose of renunciation, this much of 
knowledge is necessary that the next world is better than this world and ever lasting. God says about 
this world: Say, the commodities of this world are but short -lived. He says about the next world : 
Those who were given knowledge said : Woe to you, God's reward is better-28: 80.

ACTION: The action which arises from renunciation is to accept what is better in lieu of what is worse. 
The business of this buy and sale is called renunciation. Similarly to forsake all the pleasures of 
this world and to accept what is in the next world is renunciation. To accept God and to reject things 
other than God is true renunciation.

` Ibn Abi Laila said to the sage Ibn Shabrama : Don't you see that the son of a weaver Abu Hanifa 
rejects whatever decision we give ? The sage Ibn Shabrama said : I don't know whether he is the son of 
a weaver or the son of a respectable man. But I know that the world came to him but he fled away from 
it. The world is fleeing away fromus but we are following it. At the time of the Prophet, the Muslims 
said : We love our Lord. Had we known what things would bring His love, we would have loved them. Then 
God revealed this verse : Had We prescribed for them 'Give your lives or go out of your houses'. They 
would not obey it except a few-4 : 66. The Prophet said to Ibn Masud : You are included within those 
few. Ibn Masud said : We did not know that there are some persons among us who love this world until 
this verse was revealed-Among you there are some who love this world and some who love the next 
who were given knowledge, said : We to you. The reward of God
is best for those who have faith and do good deeds-28 : 80. It appears from this verse that God mixed 
renunciation with knowledge. He says : They will be given double rewards for their patience. In this 
verse He has spoken of those who renunciated the world. God again says : Of those who renounced the 
world. God again says : We have created what Is in the earth as adornment. By that, We shall try who is 
best in action. By this, world renunciation has been spoken of as the best. God says: We will increase 
cultivation of one who wishes that of the next world. He will give the cultivation of one who wishes 
that of this world, but he will have no share in the next world. God says Don't prolong your eyes 
towards what We have provided them of different kinds of the adorment of this world in order to try 
them therein, but the provision of your Lord better and more
Hadis-(1) The Prophet said ; God makes the affairs of one who rises early in the morning with thoughts 
of this world manysided. He makes divisions of his wealth and places property before his eyes, although 
he will have nothing of the world except what has been destined for him. God gather the thoughts of one 
in one place who rises early in the morning with the thoughts of the next world, protects his 
properties, gives satisfaction to his mind and the world comes to him with eager expectation. (2) The 
Prophet also said: Come near one whom you see tal•Cing silence and renouncing the world, because wisdom 
meets him. (3) For this reason the wise said : God causes the fountain of wisdom flow in the mind of 
one who renounces the world upto 40 days and fills up his tongue with eloquence. (4) A certain 
companion said : We asked the Prophet : 0 Messenger of God, who is best? He said: The believer whose 
heart is protected and whose tongue is truthful. We asked, 0 Messenger of God, what is protection of 
heart. He said : God fearing pure heart which has got no treachery, deceit, disobedience hatred and 
malice. We asked. 0 Messenger of God, who is the next best? He said : He who hates the world and loves 
the next world. From this it is clear that he who loves the world is worst. (5) The Prophet said ; If 
you wish to have God's love, take recourse to renunciation in the world. So make renunciation a cause 
for love. He who is loved by God is placed in the highest rank. (6) The
Prophet said : Renunciation and God fear enkindle light every night in mind. If both of them finds a 
mind which ha got Iman and shame, they stay therein or else they go away. (7) Once Habesa asked the 
Prophet : Am I a real believer. The Prophet asked him : What are the true signs of your belief. He said 
: When my mind is separated from the world, stone and gold appear equal to me. It seems that I see Hell 
and Paradise with my eyes and the throne of my Lord lies near me. The Prophet said : Stay in the 
condition in which you are now. You are such a servant whose heart has been illumined by God by the 
light of faith. (8) Once the Prophet was asked about the following verse : God expands the breast of 
one for Islam for whom He wishes gudicance (6:124). He explained the expansion by saying that it is a 
kind of light. When it enters the breast, it expands. He was again asked : 0 Messenger of God has it 
got any sign ? He said: It has got its sign mind turning away from the house of deception towards the 
everlasting abode and preparing for death before death actually comes. (9) The Prophet said : Be 
ashamed of God as is due to Him. They said : We are ashamed of God. He said:. That is not so. Why do 
you construct a house wherein you are unable to live ? Why do you save what you are unable to enjoy ? 
This shows that these two things are opposed to shame for God. (10) Once a deputation came to the 
Prophet and said : We are believers. The Prophet asked them. What are the signs of your belief ? They 
said : We keep patience at dangers and difficulties, we express gratefulness at the time of ease, we 
remain satisfied with the decree of fate and refrain from expressing satisfaction at the dangers and 
difficulties of our foes. The Prophet said : If your condition is such as you describe, then amass not 
what you are unable to enjoy and construct not a house wherein you are unable to live, and greed not 
what you shall have to leave. He advised them to take to renunciation in order to make perfect their 
faith. (11) Hazrat Jaber reported : The Prophet once said at the time of his sermon : He who truly 
believes that there is no deity but God and does not mix therewith any other thing, Paradise is sure 
for him. Hazrat Ali said at this : My father and mother be sacrificed to thee, 0 Messenger of God, give 
us satisfaction by describing what we should not mix therewith. He said : Love of this world and search 
for this world and to follow it. A party of men give advice like Prophets but act like proud men and 
oppressors. Paradise is sure for one in whose belief in the word "There is no deity but God," there 
remains nothing of these faults. (12) The
Prophet said : Generosity grows out of sure faith and a man of
sure faith shallnot enter Hell. Miserliness grows out of doubt. He
who has got doubt in faith shall not enter Paradise. (13) He also said : 'The generous man is near God, 
near men and near Paradise, but the miser is distant from God. distant from men and near Hell.' 
Miserliness is a result of attachment to the world. Generosity is the result of renunciation of the 
world. It is impossible to praise the result without praising what produces the result. (14) The 
Prophet said : God gives wisdom to the mind of one who has renounced the world, guides his tongue with 
wisdom, informs him of the causes and cures of the diseases of the world and then takes him to the 
abode of peace with ease from this world. (15) Once the Prophet was passing by a pound of camels with 
his companions. Some of the camels were pregnant and some milk-giving. Camels are a great wealth to the 
Arabs, as they can be used as conveyances and benefits are derived from their meat, hairs, milk and 
hides. The Prophet turned his face from those camels and closed his eyes. The companions asked : 0 
Messenger of God, camel is a precious thing to us. Why don't you look to them. The Prophet said : God 
prohibited me to look towards wealth. Then he recited this verse : We have given abundance to many of 
them. This is the adornment of this world's life. Don't stretch your eyes towards that.

Hazrat Ayesha said : I began to feel sorrow when I saw the Prophet hungry and said : 0 Messenger of 
God, why don't you pray to God for food. He said : 0 Ayesha, by One in whose hand there lies my life, 
had I prayed to my Lord, the mountains of the world would have followed me being filled up with gold. 
They would have moved to the place, where I wished, but I preferred in the world hunger in place of 
satisfaction, poverty in place of wealth and riches of the world, and sorrows and difficulties in place 
of pleasures and enjoyments of the world. 0 Ayesha, God is not pleased with anything in case of the 
resolute Prophets than their patience in sorrows and difficulties and patience in their dear things. He 
will never be satisfied by not giving me these sorrows and difficulties which He gave to the Prophets. 
God says 'Keep patience as the resolute Prophets kept patience.' By God, I shall certainly keep 
patience to my utmost as they kept patience. There is no might and strength except through God. (16) 
Once the Prophet's widow who was the daughter of Hazrat Omar and named Hazrat Hafsa said to her father 
: Many deputations come
to you from many distant places. You should take up decent dress and give order for delicious foods for 
you and for your guests. Hazrat Omar said : 0 Hafsa, don't you know that the family members of a man 
know his condition best. She said : I know it. Hazrat Omar said : I ask you again. h:on't you know how 
the Prophet and his family members lived during his Prophethood. If they enjoyed breakfast, they 
remained hungry at night, and if they enjoyed food at night, they remained hungry at noon. I ask you in 
the name of God : Don't you know that until the victory at Khaibar the Prophet and his family members 
could not enjoy dates. I ask you in the name of God, don't you know how the Prophet disliked the 
keeping of food in his basket for his use, so much so that the colour of his face in that case became 
changed. Then he took the food from the pot and placed it on the ground. I ask you again in the name of 
God : Don't you know that the Prophet used to sleep on a double folded blanket. I prepared for him one 
night a bed four-floded and he slept thereon. Rising from sleep he said : I could not pray Tahjjud 
(night) prayers as I slept on a four folded blanket. Make it two folded as on the previous occasions. I 
ask you again in the name of God: Don't you know that the Prophet once kept his wearing cloth for wash. 
Then Bilal called him for prayer, but he found no such cloth as he could wear and come out therewith 
for prayer. After it was heated by the sun and dried up, he wore it and came out for prayer. I ask you 
again in the name of God : Don't you know that a woman of Jafar. tribe gave two pieces of cloth one 
sheet and one Tahband-for the Prophet and sent one piece in advance. He covered his waist with one end 
of that piece and back with the other end and prayed in that condition.

Thus Hazrat Omar began to question her. At this Hazrat Hafsa began to weep. Hazrat Omar also began to 
weep and raised such a loud shriek as appeared to have taken away his life. Then Hazrat Omad said : If 
I do not tread the path on which my two predecessors, the Prophet and Abu Bakr, have treated, I would 
be destroyed and perish. By God, I would keep patience at the firm conduct of life, so that I may get 
eternal rest along with them.

(17) The Prophet said: Some Prophets before me were tried by poverty. They had nothing but a wearing 
apparel. Some of them expired being bitten by lices. Even this was dearer to them than your wealth.
(18) The Prophet said : When Moses came to a well at Madain, there appeared on his stomach the signs of 
vegetables owing to his thinness. The Prophets chose this way of life. They were most informed of the 
creations of God and more experienced of the path leading to success in the next world.
(19) When this verse was revaled "Those who hoard up gold and silver and don't spend them in the way of 
God etc." the Prophet said : May gold and silver be destroyed. We said : 0 Messenger of God. God 
prohibited us from hoarding gold and silver. Then what thing shall we hoard? The Prophet said Anyone of 
you shall take to remembering tongue, grateful heart and a chaste wife, so that they can help you in 
the affairs of your next world.
(20) The Prophet said: God throws three disasters on a person who loves the world more than the next 
world. (1) He meets with such anxieties in mind as never go out of it, (2) He meets with such want as 
never go. (3) He has got such greed which is never satisfied.
(21) The Prophet said : The faith of a man does not become perfect who does not love to remain 
unrecognized more than his greed to become known, and whose wish to get less does not become dearer 
than his greed to get more.
(22) The Prophet Jesus Christ said : The world is like a bridge. Pass over it and don't make habitation 
on it. He was asked : 0 Prophet of God, if you had ordered us to construct houses of worship it would 
have been better. He said : Go and construct houses on that water. They said : how will the houses 
stand over water. He said : Then how will your worship remain in order having love of this world in 
(23) Our Prophed said : My Lord presented before me the places of Mecca filled up with gold. I said : 0 
my Lord, I don't want it. What I want is that I should remain hungry one day and take food next day. I 
would pray to you on the day when I shall remain hungry and I would praise you and give you thanks on 
the day I would take food.
(24) The Prophet said: One day the Prophet began to walk on foot with Gabriel with him. He ascended on 
a lofty place and said to Gabriel : 0 Gabriel, by one who sent you with truth, the family
members of Muhammad could not have this evening one handful of wheat or maize. Hardly had he uttered 
it, he heard such a loud voice from heaven that caused his heart tremble. The Prophet said : Has God 
ordered for resurrection ? Gabriel said : That is not so. When he heard your voice. Israfil came to you 
and said : God sent me down with all the treausres of the world on bearing your complaint and to 
present them before you. If you wish, I would come to you with mountains of jewels, emeralds, gold and 
silver. Inform me whether you want to be Prophet with the kingdom of this vast world with all its seas 
or to be a Prophet and a servant. Gabriel hinted at the Prophet to be humble before God. The Prophet 
said thrice : I wish to become a Prophet and a servant.
(25) The Prophet said : When God wishes good of a servant. He gives him renunciation of the world, 
desire for the next world and insight into his defects and sins.
(26) He said : Take to world renunciation God will love you. He said : He who wishes that God should 
give him wisdom without education and guidance without a guide, should take recourse to world 
(27) He also said : He who desires to go to Paradise, should hasten to good deed and he who fears Hell 
should restrain himself from passions. He who hopes for death, should give up pleasures. He who adopts 
renunciation in the world takes his dangers and difficulties easy.
(28) Our Prophet and Jesus Christ said : Four things can be acquired with difficulty-(1) silence with 
primary divine service, (2) modesty. (3) excessive remembrance of God (4) and satisfaction with little.
Sayings of the sages. A certain companion said : We have followed every action, but we found nothing 
more meritorious than world renunciation. (2) Hazrat Omar said : World renunciation brings peace of 
mind and body. Hazrat Wahab-bin-Monabbah said: Paradise has got eight-doors. When the dwellers of 
Paradise will be advancing towards those, the door-keepers will say : By the houour of our Lord, none 
shall enter Paradise except those who renounced the word and those who loved Paradise. The saint Eusof 
bin-Asbat said : I desire three virtues from God-(1) when death comes to me, I may not
die possessing a single coin, (2) I leave no debt. (3) and there remains no flesh in my bones. God 
granted him these three things. The saint Amer-bin-Amir said : Jesus Christ used to wear woollen cloth 
and eat leaves and forages. He had no son to die and no house to be destroyed and he used not to hoard 
for to morrow. He used to sleep where his night came. The wife of saint Abu Hazem told him one day : 
The winter has come now and we required now food, cloth and fuel. Abu Hazem said to him These things 
are necessary no doubt, but more necessary are our death, resurrection, waiting before God for judgment 
and then entry into Paradise or Hell. Hazrat Ibrahim-bin-Adham said : We have covered over minds by 
three screens. Certain faith will not open them till the screens are removed-(1) to feel pleasure for 
the things in possession (2) to feel sorrow for not having something. (3) and to be delighted on 
hearing praises. If you feel pleasure for the things in possession at present you will be greedy. If 
you feel sorrow for the past things, you will be dissatisfied and for that you are to be punished. If 
you are delighted at hearing praises, you love self praise which destroys yourdivine service. Hazrat 
Ibn Masud said : Two rakats of prayer of a man who renounced the world is better than the divine 
service of an honest worker for his whole life and the former is dearer to God. A certain ancient sage 
said : The gifts of God that will come to us in future are grater than the past gifts of God on us. It 
seens that he said this looking at the following Hadis: Surely God saves His believing servant from 
attachment of the world as you save your patient from food and drink and fear these things for him.' 
When the patient understands this, he knows also that the gift of health is more valuable than the 
gifts from which he has been deprived. If they are given to him, his ailment will increase. The saint 
Sufiyan Saori said : The world is a temporary abode and not an eternal abode. This world is an abode of 
sorrow and not of happiness. He who knows it does not become satisfied with his fortune and 
dissatisfied with his misfortune. The saint Sahal Tastari said : The worship of a worshiper cannot turn 
out to be with sincere faith for God till he becomes free from four things-hunger, want of cloth, 
poverty and disgrace. The great saint Hasan Basari said : I saw many such persons and was associated 
with many such persons who did not become happy at the advent of wealth and sorrowful at its loss. It 
was more trivial thing to them than earth. Among them there were persons who lived up to 60 years 
without cloth to put on,
without utensils for cooking, without bed for sleep and no order was placed for delicious food. When 
night came, they used to stand on their legs, prostrate over their faces, let tears to flow down their 
cheeks from their eyes and talk secretly with their Lord for their salvation. When they worshipped, 
they became humble in expressing gratefulness and prayed for its acceptance. When they committed sins, 
they became sad and prayed for forgiveness to God.. They remained always in that condition. By God, 
they were also not free from sin and got no salvation without God's forgivencess.
(1) First stage. This is the first and the lowest stage of renunciation. Such a man withholds his hand 
from a work which has got no connection with religion but cannot free himself completely from 
attachment of the world. He tries to keep his mind aloof from worldly things and makes such efforts.
(2) Second stage. The scond and the middle stage of renunciation is like that of a man who gives up one 
coin for getting two, and he thinks that there is value of the coin he gives up, but still more 
valuable are the two coins he hopes to get in future.
(3) Thrid stage. This stage of renunciation is highest as in this stage, a person gives up his world in 
preference to the next world, even he forgets renunciation as he takes the world as nothing. He is like 
a person who gives up coppet to get gold and does not think it a change.
One Example. He who renunciates the world for the next is like a person (to a man experienced in 
spiritiual illumination', who meets with a dangerous dog in front of the royal palace. He throws a bit 
of bread before the dog which began to eat it. In the meantime, he enters the palace and takes up the 
affairs of administration in his hand as a minister. The devil is a dog in front of God's palace. Throw 
the world to him and enter the palace. If a man is given an age of one hundred years and abundant 
wealth and treasures of the world, these things are insignificant to him in comparison with the 
everlasting happiness of the next world, as a bit of bread is insignificant in comparison with an 
empire of the world. There can be no comparison of a thing which has got no end with that thing

which has got an end. The world will end though it is prologed for thousands of years. Earthly pleasure 
can not be compared with the everlasting pleasures of the next world. Life is short and mixed up with 
pleasures and sorrows of this world. So where is its comaprison with the ever lasting happiness of the 
next world?

There are also three classes of renunciation in consideration of getting something better. One class of 
renunciation is the lowest and that is the renunciation to save oneself from the punishment of Hell and 
other punishments such as severity of accounts, danger of bridge etc. The second class of renunciation 
is to get rewards of paradise, its pleasures and happiness. The third and the highest class of 
renunciation has gto no object except to meet with God and to get His pleasure. It is adopted neither 
to ward off punishment of Hell and other punishments, nor to get the pleasures and happiness of 
Paradise, but to get His love and pleasure. This is true Tauhid. He thinks that to do divine service 
except with the above motive is to set up partnership with God. This is the renunciation of the 
lovers-who are called Aref. Don't think that when the dwellers of Heaven will meet with their Lord, the 
thoughts of Hur, Gelman, buildings etc. will find any room in their minds.

--Stages of renunciation in consideration of the things given up. (1) The first stage is that except 
God all things should be given up. (2) The second stage is to give up what helps passion. Such aperson 
gives up the necessary things of passion, such as greed, anger, pride, name and fame. (3) The third 
stage is to give up the causes of riches and name-and fame. (4) The fourth stage of renunciation is to 
give up learning, power, wealth and fame. If riches are increased, money is hoarded. If causes of fame 
increase, the object of knowledge and power becomes to captivate the minds of the people. The meaning 
of fame is to conquer the hearts of men and to spread lordship over them. God in one verse mentioned 
seven things of the world as endearing to men-women, echildren, boarded gold and silver, best horses, 
quardrupeds and corns and crops. These are the things of the world. God' also says : This world's life 
is nothing but pride in sports, adorments, mutual boast and increase of men and money. Then he says : 
For those who restrain themselves from passion,
'Paradise is their resort. In ohter words, the meaning of nunciation is to turn their minds from all 
pleasures of passion.
Whenever you turn your mind from the pleasures of self, you will then turn away from living forever in 
the world. Your hopes will 'then be short as the pleasures of the world are but short-lived. For this 
reason, when they were ordered to fight in the way of God, they cried out : 0 our Lord, we have been 
ordered to fight. If you give us a short time, it will be good. God says : say, the wealth of this 
world is very insignificant. At this time, those who renounced the world were recognised from those who 
were hypocrites. The former loved God and hence they stood like a solid rock in the way of God and 
wished to have the status of martyrs. Even Khalid-bin-Walid who died in his home said : I have played 
many times with my life, fought many battles to be a martyr, but to my ill luck I was not fovoured with 
martyrdom. Now I am dying aged like an ordinary man. When he died, eight hundred worunds were found in 
his body. Such was the condition of faith of the truthful.

The hypocrites who fled from the battle field met with the following revelation : 'The death from which 
you flee away will surely overtake you. They preferred life to martyrodom, preferred a bad thing 
instead of a good one, misguidance in place of guidance. They did not make profit in their profession 
nor did they find guidance. As to those who did divine service with sincere mind, God purchased from 
them their lives and properties in exchange of Paradise. They received good news of everlasting 
happiness in exchange of their sacrifice of happiness of 20 or 30 years.

These are the meanings of world renuhciation. The saint Wais Karni said : When a person of world 
renunciation comes out in search of something renunciation goes out from him. He also said : The 
meaning of renunciation is to give up search for something. He hinted at the search for livelihood. One 
expert in Hadis said : To work accoridng to one's free will is world. Renunciation is to follow 
knowledge and Prophet's Sunnah. The first of world-renunciation is to turn away from what is not usefu 
the next world. The saint Hasan Basri said : When a world unciator sees anybody, he says to him : You 
are better than myself. One sage said : Renunciation means to search for -lawful things. The saint 
Eusof-bin-Asbat said : He who is forbearing in sorrows and difficulties, gives up the coveted things 
and eats lawful food adopts the basis of renunciation. Thus there are different sayings of different 
sages. But the saint
Abu Solaiman Darani said : I heard many sayings of many sages
about the meaning of renunciation, but the meaning of renunciation according to my opinion is to give 
up what keeps you away from God. Then he recited the verse : None but he who comes to God with a sound 
mind will get salvation-26: 89. He said that the meaning of sound mind is that mind which has got not 
thought excpet God. According to him renunciation can be classed into three-obligatory, optional and 
safe. Ibrahim-bin-Adham said : To take recourse to renunciation from unlawful things is obligatory, 
from greed of lawful things is optional and from doubtful things is safe. Imam Malek once was asked : 
What is renunciation. He said : Taqwa or God fear. There is renunciation regarding wealth and riches. 
There are different stages about them. The highest stage is the renunciation of Jesus Christ. He used 
once a piece of stone at pillow. The devil came to him and said : Have you renounced to world. Jesus 
Christ said What thing of the world have you found in me ? The devil said You have taken a stone under 
your head for comfort At this he cast off the stone and said: Take what I have thrown for you.
It is said that Hazrat Ihya used to wear jute bag. By wearing thin and soft cloth, he might have felt 
joy and his passion satified. Some places of his body were wounded owing to use of rough bag. His 
mother saw this and adviced him to take robe of wool. When he did this, God revealed to him: 0 Yahya, 
you have preferred the world. He began to weep at this, threw off the woollen gown and again took to 
jute bag.
The sage Ahmed said that the renunciation of Wais Karani was real. He used to sit in jute bag. 'Jesus 
Christ once enjoyed the shadow of the wall, of a person. When the owner of the wall removed him from 
that place, he said: You have not removed me .but God being dissatisfied removed me from this shade of 
your wall which I was enjoying.
RENUNCIATION OF NECESSITIES OF LIFE: -The necessities of livelihood are limited, but the things which 
are not encessary are unlimited. So discusion of necessary things is necessary. There are six kinds of 
necessary things-(1) food. (2) cloth, (3) house, (4) furniture (5) wife, (6) wealth and honour.
(1) Food: Lawful food is necessary for a man so as to keep his backbone erect, but it has got varieties 
and dimensions. To
restrict them is renunciations. There are three stages of renunciation regarding time. The highest 
stage is to remain satisfied with that quantity of food which keeps the backbone erect. What he gets 
for day time, he does not store it up for the night. The second stage is to store food grains for 40 
days and the third stage is to store them for one year. Thosewho are weak in renunication-adopt this 
course. He who stores up food grains beyond one year can haredly be called one who renunciated the 

Quantity food: The highest stage of renunciation regarding quantity is to eat one-fourth of a seer of 
food, the middle stage is half a seer and the lowest stage in one seer during the whole day and night. 
One seer (one Mud) has been fixed as expiation of sin to be given to a poor man. Beyond this, belly is 
Kinds of food: The lowest stage regarding kind of food is bread of maize which is absolutely necessary 
for life. The middle kind is bread of wheat and other corns and the highest kind is bread of sifted 
wheat. Beyond this, there is luxury, such as bread of sifted flour, shuji etc. The lowest kind of curry 
is of vegetables with salt or condiment and the middle kind is with oil and edible things and the 
highest kind is with meat of all kinds, once or twice a week. If it-is continued for the whole week, it 
goes out of the last stage of renunciation.
Time of food: The lowest stage of renunciation is to take food once only during the whole day and night 
which is nothing but fasting. The middle stage is to keep fast with a drink only at night or with food 
at night with no drink. The highes stage of renunication is to keep fast consequitively for three days 
or more.
Habit of sages regarding quantity of food. Hazrat Ayesha said : There came a time upon us when for want 
of oil there was no light for 40 days in the house of the Prophet and for want of food there was no 
fire... She asked : With what thing would he then sustain his life ? Ayesha replied : With two black 
things-dried grape and water. It appears from this that he give up then meat and even vegtables. Hazrat 
Hasan Basri said : The Prophet used to ride on asses, wear coarse woollen cloth shoes, lick up his 
fingers after meal take meal on the ground and say : I am a mere slave. I take food just as a slave 
takes and sit just as a slave sits. Jesus Christ said : I speak to you with truth, he who
seeks garden of Ferdous should take bread of husk and sleep
with dogs in the neighbouring place. The saint Fart said that the Prophet after his arival at Medina 
could not eat bread of wheat consequitively for three days. Jesus Christ said: 0 the children of 
Israil, drink pure water and eat bread of maize and leave bread of wheat as you are unable to express 
gratefulness to Him. When the Prophet came to Qubba, the inhabitants came to him with drink of milk 
mixed with honey. He took the pot, threw it down and said : I don't make it unlawful but I leave it 
being modest of
The sage Ibn Razi said : A true world renunciated man eats whatever he gets wears what covers his 
private parts and lives in a place wherever he gets. The world to him is a prison grave is his bed, 
loneliness is his companion, lesson is his thought, Quran is his object of discussion, Lord is his 
friend, renunciation is his companion, sorrow is his condition, shame is his sign, hunger is his curry, 
wisdom is his word, earth is his bed, God fear is his provision, silence is his jewel, patience is his 
hope, God-reliance is his attribute, intellect is his proof, divine service is his professirn and 
Paradise is his object-if God wishes.
(2) Second necessary thing-cloth. The highest renunciation is to put on such cloth as protects heat and 
cold and. covers private parts. One piece of cloth is sufficient for cover. The middle stage of 
renunication is to put on one long shirt, one cap and one pair of shoes and the lowest state of 
renunciation is to put on the above things together with an handkerchief and one trouser. Beyond this, 
one goes out of renunciation. The condition of a world renounced man is that if he washes one cloth, he 
will not have a second piece to put on, rather he will sit within his room maked. When he has got two 
shirts, two trousers and two handkerchiefs, he goes out of the state of renunciation.
KINDS OF CLOTH: The highest renunication is to put on coarse rag or jute, the middle stage is wool 
cloth and the lowest stage is coarse cotton cloth. Time of cloth. The world renounced man will put on 
such cloth as is durable for one day at least to one year at most. Even some of them put on leaves of 
trees to cover their private parts even though these leaves dry up. The middle course of duration is 
one month. The cloth which lasts for more than one year is against renunciation.
Examples of the Prophet and his companions. Abu Bordah said that Hazrat Ayesha took out one blanket and 
one coar e wearing cloth and said that the Prophet expired within these tw clothes. The Prophet said : 
God loves the man who puts on what he gets and does not differentiate. He also said : God is 
dissatisfied with one who takes his dress for name and fame even though he is the beloved of God, till 
he takes it off. Once the Prophet purchasld a cloth costing four dirhams. His two clothes (wearing 
cloth and blanket) were valued at ten dirhams. His Tahband were four and half cubits long. He purchased 
once one Tahband for three dirhams. Sometimes he put on two white shamlas made of wool called gown. 
Sometimes he put on two clothes of the same kind. Sometimes he put on two course sheets made of Yemen. 
The Prophet had a long shirt. Once the Prophet put on a silk cloth of yellow colour made of Sandaush of 
the value of two hundred dirhams. The companions touched it and said with wonder : 0 Mesenger of God, 
this cloth has descended to you from Paradise. This dress was presented to the Prophet by the Emperor 
Mukaokis of Alexandria. He wished the Prophet to be dressed therewith. He put it on and then took it 
off and sent it to a non-believer with whom the Prophet had cordial relations. Thereafter he made silk 
dress unlawful. Once the Prophet put on a gold ring. Thereafter he put it off and made it unlwaful for 

Once. the Prophet put on a long shirt and said his prayer. After the prayer, he said : This cloth 
having embroidery turned away my mind. Take it to Abu Jaham, give it to him and take his blanket in its 
place for me. Once the laces of the shoes of the Prophet grew old and he took new laces and therewith 
he prayed. After the prayer, he said : Give me the old laces and put off the new ones, as during the 
prayers my attention was drawn towards the new laces. Once he put on a gold ring and began to deliver 
khutabah (sermon) on a pulpit. Suddenly his attention was drawn towards the ring. He put it off at once 
and said : I should not keep one eye towards the ring and one eye towards

Once the Prophet was given a new pair of shoes. He was delighted at it and said in prostration : It 
appears to be good in my eyes. For this I feared and fell in prostration before my Lord. Then he came 
out with it and gave it to a poor man he found first
on the way. Once a long gown of leopard's skin was prepared or the Prophet. He put it on and said : How 
fine, how soft ! See to it. Then a wild Arab got up and said : 0 Messenger of God, gift it to me. He 
gifted it to him and ordered for a fresh gown. During its use, he died.
Once the Prophet went to his daughter Fatema who was then turning round a grinding mill. He had then in 
his person a cloth made a camel's hairs. The Prophet saw this condition of Fatema and began to weep and 
said : 0 Fatema, you are having this suffering to be blessed with everlasting happiness. At once the 
revelation came : Soon your Lord will give you such things as you will be pleased therewith. The 
Prophet said : My highest Lord informed me about my people the pious among them will see the amount of 
the grace of God and will become glad openly and weep secretly fearing His punishment. Their burden on 
the people is light but their burden on them is heavy. They put on old cloths and follow those who have 
renunciated the world. Their bodies are in their world, but their minds keep near the Throne.

These are the practices of the Prophet regarding dress. He lift instructions to his followers to follow 
him, as he said : He who loves me shall follow my ways of life. He also said : You should follow my 
ways and after me the ways of the rightly guided Caliphs. Hold it first with your front teeth. God said 
: Say, if you love God, follow me, God then will love you.

The Prophet, gave Ayesha this special instruction : 0 Ayesha, if you like to stay with me, give up the 
assembly of the rich and don't leave a cloth until it is stitched. Twelve stitiches were found in the 
shirt of Hazrat Omar some of which were of hides. Once Hazrat Ali purchased a piece of cloth worth 
three dirhams. Its sleeves was long and therefore he tore it off and said: All praise is due to God who 
gave me to put it on out of kindness. The saint Sufiyan said : Put on such cloth as would not meet with 
disgrace from the learned and the ilitterate. He said : If any poor man passes by me while I pray, I 
think it my duty to pray for him. If at that time any worldly man passes by me with arms. I become 
displeased with him and I don't think it my duty to pray for him. An ancient sage said : Put on such 
cloth as therewith you can mix with the people in market and use not such cloth as atracts the 
attention of the people.
The saint Abu Solaiman Darani said : There are three kinds of cloth-one kind of cloth is purely for God 
and that covers the private parts, one kind of cloth is for passion as passion wants soft cloth and 
another kind of cloth is for beauty of dress. Some sage said : The religion of one whose cloth is thin 
is also thin. Most of the Tabeyins used cloth of the value of 20 to 30 dirham. Special people used to 
wear only two cloths-one Tahband and one Pirhan. The Prophet said : To wear torn cloth is a sign of 
renunciation. He also said : It is the duty of God to store up the dress of emeralds of Paradise in a 
box for one who adopts modesty having had means and gives up fine dress to seek the pleasure of God. 
God revealed to one of the Prophets : Tell my friends not to wear the dress of my enemies, not to enter 
the paths of my enemies or else they will be my enemies like My enemies.

Rafe bin Khadiz said when he found Bashar-bin-Merwan delivering a sermon on the pulput : Look to your 
ruler. He is delivering sermon to the people with the dress of sinners on his person. He put on thin 
fine dress. Once Abdulla-bin-Amer put on a valuable dress and was discussing with Abu Zarr about world 
renunciation. Abu Zarr put a whistle in this mouth and was making sound. At this, Ibn Amer got 
displeased and complained to Hazrat Omar who said : Have you advised him about renunciation putting on 
such valuable dress ? Hazrat Ali said : God took promise from the leaders of guides that they would 
live like ordinary men among the people, so that the rich people can follow them and do not hate, the 
poor for their poverty. When'a poor man was despised for his coarse cloth, he said : This is near 
modesty and more fit for the Muslims to follow. The Prophet prohibited grandeurs. He said; There are 
servants of God who do not love grandeurs. Fuzala- bin-Obaid was Governor of Egypt. He used to walk 
dishevelled in hairs and bare footed. He said that the Prophet had prohibited grandieur and gave 
instructions to walk sometimes bare footed. Hazrat Ali said to Hazrat Omar If you wish to stay with 
your two previous friends, stitch your shirt, make your wearing cloth short, stitch your sandals and 
eat not with satisfaction. Hazrat Omar said : Put on old coarse cloth and leave the dress of Persian 
and Byzantine empires. Hazrat Ali said : He who adopts the dress of another nation belongs to that 
nation. The Prophet said : The dishonest among my followers will eat delicious foods search for various 
kinds of foods and dresses and use ornamental languages in orations. The Prophet
said : The wearing apparel of a believer hangs upto half of lower leg and there is no harm in 
prolonging it to the space between half of lower leg and the joints. What hangs down beyond this is in 
the Hell fire. On the Resurrection Day. God will not look to one who prolongs his wearing apparel. The 
Prophet also said : None but the fool among my followers will put on woollen cloths.
Abu Solaiman said: When God adopted Hazrat Ibrahim as friend, He revealed to him ; Keep your private 
parts concealed more than earth. he used to keep only one piece of cloth except Tahband. He had two 
Tahband, when he washed one Tahband, he put on another so that he might not remain uncovered.
Once Salman Faresi was asked: Why do you not put on good clothes? He said : Being a servant, how can I 
put on good clothes ? When I shall be free, God will give me such clothes as will never perish.
(3) Another necessary thing is house. There are three stages also regarding houses to live in. The 
highest stage of renunciation regarding habitation is not to search a separate house to live in and to 
remain satisfied by taking recourse to a corner of a mosque. The middle stage is to seek a separate 
place for one's habitation, such as a room made of date leaves or straw or similar things. The lowest 
stage is to live in a house made of bricks or stones or hire such a house. If it is spacious according 
to need and has got no grandeur within, it does not go beyond the lowest stage of renunciation. If the 
house is spacious and fine and its terrace is higher than six cubits, he surpasses the limit of 
renunciation regarding house. In other words, there is renunciation if the limit of necessity is not 
surpassed. The man of religion is not to exceed the necessary limit of a thing. If it is crossed, it is 
against religion. A house is necessary for removing heat and cold, rain, eye-sight and difficulties. 
The lowest limit is known and the highest limit is not to exceed the limit and if limit is exceeded, it 
is included within the worldly things. The sages said that after the demise of the Prophet, what came 
open about long hope includes fineries of dress and construction of houses with bricks and such 
materials. The Prophet said : There will come a time upon the people when they will imprint upon their 
clothes like Yemeni shirts, Hazrat Abbas created a lofty house. The Prophet ordered it to be pulled 
down. One day while the Prophet was passing he found a dome in a house and said: Who
has constructed this dome ? The people named the owner of this house to him. When the owner came, the 
Prophet did not look at him. When he asked his companion about the displeasure of the Prophet towards 
him, they gave him that information. Afterwards, the owner of the dome demolished the dome. One day the 
Prophet passed by that way and didnot find the dome and he was informed that the owner of the house had 
demolished it. At this the Prophet prayed for him.
The saint Hasan Basari said: The Prophet did not place one brick upon another for habitation and one 
piece of wood upon another. The Prophet said : When God wishes evil for a servant, He destroys his 
wealth in water and earth. Abdullah-bin-Amr said : We were once engaged in repairing a worn out house. 
At that time the Messenger of God was passing by that way and asked us : What are you doing ? We said : 
This house is about to fall down and so we are repairing it. He said : Death is faster than this.
The Prophet Noah was constructing a house of reeds. He was told : It would have been better if you have 
prepared a house of bricks. He said : For one who is subject to death, this house of reed is 
sufficient. The Prophet said : He who makes his house high without necessity, will be asked to bear its 
burden. The Prophet said; A man will get rewards for what he spends but he will not get any reward for 
what he spends in water and earth. God says : This is the abode of the Hereafter. I have prepared it 
for those who do not want in the world to be high or create disturbances. This means search for powers 
and construction of lofty places. The Prophet said : Every building will be an instrument of punishment 
on the Resurrection Day for its owner, but it will not be an instrument of punishment if it gives 
protection from heat and cold. When a man complained of the inspacious house of the Prophet, he told 
him : Increase its spaciousness in sky or Paradise.
At the time of going to Syria, Hazrat Omar saw a lofty building and after reciting Takbir he said : I 
did not think before that any man of this people will construct a building like that of Haman, minister 
of Pharaoh. Paraoh said: 0 Haman, burn bricks for me. It is said that Pharaoh. was the first man who 
constructed a building made of bricks and Haman was the first man to construct of lofty building. 
Thereafter the tyrant kings followed him.
A certain sage of yore saw a mosque in a town and said: I saw the mosque being constructed by branches 
of dried palm leave and then by earth and then by bricks. There were some men who, at the time of going 
for pilgrimage or for joining Jihad, broke their houses and gifted them to their neighbours. When they 
came back, they used to construct their houses anew. Their houses were made of grass or hide and their 
height was equal to that of a man. Hazrat Hasan Basari said : When we entered the hut of the Prophet, 
we could touch its roof. Amr-bin-Dinar said : When a man makes his roof higher than six cubits, an 
angel proclaims : 0 sinner, where are you going ? The saint Sufiyan Saori prohibited looking at lofty 
buildings. He said : If the people did not cast their lock, they would not have constructed lofty 
buildings. If one looks at them, it helps that. Thesage Fazil said He who crests a building for 
habitation and then dies is not a greater wonder to me than one who sees it and does not take care. 
Hairat Ibn Masud said : A party of men will appear who will erect earth above, keep their religion low 
and use unchaste women. They will pray towards your Qibla but they will die on a religion other than 
(4) Another necessary thing-Furnitures of Household. The highest sage of renunciation regarding this is 
that of Jesus Christ. He used to keep only one comb and one pot with him. One day he saw a man combing 
his beard with his fingers and he at once threw off his comb. He saw another man drinking water of the 
river, with his hand and so he threw off his pot also. Such is the rule with regard to everything as a 
thing is used for some purpose. When that thing is not required, it returns, to him as a sort of 
punishment both in this world and the world next. What is absolutely necessary for him is kept within 
the lowest limit just as the earthen pot. The middle stage is that everything is lawful according to 
needs but that is kept by one piece which serves many purposes. If there is only one cup, he eats 
therein and drinks therefrom. The early sages used the same thing for different purposes. If things are 
kept in large numbers and are also valuable, the man goes out of the limit of renunciation.

Prophet's renunciation. Hazrat Ayesha said : The bed on which the Prophet used to sleep contained a 
pillow full of refuges of drifted dried grapes within skin. Fazil said: His bed was prepared of the 
sheet which he put on when it was folded twice and his
pillow was filled up with refuges of grapes covered with skin. Once Hazrat Omar went to the Prophet ad 
saw him sleeping on a chatai mixed with dust. When the Prophet rose up from sleep, he saw prints of 
chatai on his both sides and began to weep. The Messenger of God asked him : 0 son of Khattab, why are 
you weeping ? Hazrat Omar said : 0 Messenger of God, the emperors of Byzantium and Persia are engaged 
in endless happiness though they are enemies of God, but you are the friend of God, His messenger and 
chosen servant, You are lying on this cahtai mixed with dust? The Prophet said : 0 Omar are you not 
satisfied that the grandeur of this world is for them and the grandeur of the next world is for us ? 
Hazrat Omar said: 0 Messenger of God, that is true. The Prophet said : What I said is also true.

Once a man went to Abu Zarr and began to look at his house. Then he said : 0 Abu Zarr, I don't find any 
house-hold goods in your house. What is the reason? He said: I have got a house (next world) where I 
send every good thing. He said : So long as you are in this house, you should keep some goods here. He 
said : The owner of this house will not allow me to live here further. Omarbin-Sayeed, Governor of 
Hems, once came to see Omar who asked him : What properties of the world are in your house ? He said : 
I have got a stick by which I walk and kill any serpent I met with. I have got a bag wherein I keep my 
eatable things. I have got another cup wherein I eat and wherewith I wash my head and cloth. I have got 
a badna to make ablution. I carry water therein for drinking and for making ablution. The things beyond 
these are included within worldly things. Wherever Igo I take these things with me. At this Hazrat Omar 
said : You have spoken the truth. May God shower His blessings on you.

Once the Prophet returned from a long journey, went to Hazrat Fatema's house and found a screen of 
varied colours hanging at her door. Fatema was then wearing two pieces of bangles of silver. Seeing 
this, the Prophet went away from that place without uttering a single word. Hazrat Abu Rafe afterwards 
went to Fatema and found her weeping. She told Abu Rafe all details and the latter asked her : Has he 
returned only after seeing one screen and two bangles ? Hazrat Fatema sent Bilal with these two things 
and asked the Prophet that she was willing to make gift of these two things and that he might give them 
to whomever he would like. He said : Sell these things and
makes the price of gift to the companions of Suffa. He sold the two bangles for 21/2 dirhams and gifted 
it to them. Then the Prophet went to Fatema and said By my father you have done well.
Once the Prophet saw a screen in the door of Hazrat Ayesha's room. He looked at it and said : Whenever 
I see it, it reminds me of the world. Send it to the family of so and so. One night Hazrat Ayesha 
prepared a new bed for the Prophet. Before this he used to make his sheet two fold and sleep thereon. 
In that night, he only changed sides and could not sleep. At dawn, the Prophet said to Ayesha : Spread 
out my old sheet and take this bed from me. It kept me all night awake. In this way, the Prophet passed 
another sleepless night when he got at that time five or six dinars. In the latter part of the night, 
he took them and gifted them away. Hazrat Ayesha said : He then slept such a deep sleep that I could 
hear the sound of his nose. When he got up from sleep, he said : If I met God storing up these coins, 
what He would have thought of Muhammad?
Hazrat Hasan Basari said : I saw ten companions, each of whom had only once cloth and had no cloth to 
spread on the earth for sleep. Whenever any one of them wished to sleep, he placed his back on the 
ground, placed cloth on his person and slept.
(5) Another necessary thing-Marriage. Many persons say that if one person gets married or takes several 
wives, he goes out of the limit of renunciation. The Prophet was the greatest of saints and yet he 
loved wives. Shall we then go without marriage? The saint Aynah supported this. He said: that Hazrat 
Ali was the greatest among the companions but he had four wives and twelve slave girls. To us, what the 
saint Abu Solaiman Darani said is the correct opinion. He said : Whatever thing keeps your mind turned 
away from God-properties and children, is the sign of your misfortune. When women keep your mind away 
from God. It is better then to remain unmarried. Not to marry then is included within renunciation. But 
when passion runs high, to marry is compulsory. If you do not then marry, it will not be renunciation. 
If one knows that his wife not keep his mind turned away from the remembrance of God, it does not go 
out of renunciation, as the object of marriage is the birth of children and preservation of human 
species. By this, merits are acquired for increasing also the followers of the Prophet. A
bachelor is like one who gives up food and drink fearing them. That is not renunciation, as to give up 
food and drink means destruction of body. Similarly, to give up marriage is not renunciation as it will 
not preserve his dynasty. So to give up marriage for forsaking conjugal joy is not renunciation. If you 
fear to remain busy in case of marriage of several wives, then marry only one. The saint Abu Solaiman 
said : There is also renunciation is marriage. That is to marry orphan girls or ugly girls and not to 
marry beautiful and respectable girls. The saint Junaid said : I like three preliminary things for a 
traveller towards religion-(1) to carry on some trade, (2) to search for Hadis and (3) to marry.
(6) Another necessary thing-Wealth and honour. Honour is obtained by capturing the minds of the people 
and with the help of honour, a man attains his object.
WEALTH-Limited wealth is necessary for livelihood. The earning man should give up earning if he has got 
necessary things for a day. This is the condition of renunciation. If one crosses this limit, he 
suspasses the ways of the Prophet and goes out of the lowest stage of renunciation. If he has got 
landed properties and has got no such strength as to rely on God, he may hoard for one year his 
necessary things and by this act he will not go out of renunciation. If he does not make a gift of the 
surplus things keeping the yearly things of necessity, he will be the weakest person in renunciation. 
The condition of renunciation is a personal affair but it is not a duty to be imposed upon family 
members. It is true that one should not surpass the middle course. The Prophet went out of Fatema's 
house seeing her screen of varied colours and her bangles, as these were adornments, not necessary 
things. Wealth and honour in necessary measure are not prohibited and what is beyond necessary things 
regarding wealth and honour is like poison and therefore injurious. Wealth and honour to ward off wants 
are not worldly things but are included within the next worldly things.
Once the Prophet Abraham fell in want and wanted loan from one of his friends, but he did not give him 
loan. God then sent revelation to him: If you wanted it from your Friend; He would have surely given it 
to you. He said : 0 my Lord, I know that you do not love the world. I feared for that reason to invoke 
you for that. God revealed to him: 'The thing which is necessary
is not world.' So what is absolutely necessary is included within religion, but there is punishment in 
the next world for what is not necessary and that is the world. He who looks at the condition of a rich 
man and the disgrace of earning money and its hoarding and preservation, can know the punishment of 
wealth in this world. The least misfortune of the rich is that they leave these riches behind for their 
heirs. In most cases, their riches help them in the commission of sins. Therefore the hoarders in the 
world have been compared to the worms of silk. These silk worms weave over their bodies first and do 
not find any way out of them and for that they die and perish owing to their actions. He who is busy 
with the world is exactly like that. He is confined by his riches, name and fame, family, children, 
pleasure of his enemies and displeasure of his friends and other things of the world. If he wants to go 
out of the world, he can't do it and finds himself confined. If any dear thing goes out of his hand, he 
as it were meets with death. Thereafter the angel of death one day separates him completely from his 
dear things. He snatches him catching hold of the sinews of his heart but the dear things of the world 
draw him towards the world. If he dies in such a condition, he becomes like a person whose body is 
split up by saw. Hazrat Hasan Basri said : I saw 70 soldiers of Bad. They renunciated lawful things 
more than what you renunciated from unlawful things. In another narration : They enjoyed more happiness 
in their disasters than what you enjoy in your solvency and sufficient means. If you had seen this, you 
would have termed them mad. If they had seen your pious men, they would have said : These people have 
got no connection with religion. If they had seen your sinners, they would have said : They have got no 
faith in the judgment day. If any lawful thing reached any one of them he did not accept it and said : 
I fear the destruction of my heart. He who had heart feared the spoiling of his heart. God gave 
information about those whose hearts have been spoiled by the attachment of the world : They are 
satisfied with this world's life and are heedless of My orders. God says : Don't obey those who have 
made their hearts heedless of Us and followed their low desires. God said : Turn away from those who 
turn away from My remembrance and who don't wish but this world's life. The run of their wisdom is 

Once a man said to Jesus Christ : Take me as your companion in your jourey. Jesus Christ said : Gift 
your wealth
and then come to me. He said : I can't do it. Jesus Christ said : It is a wonder for a rich man to 
enter Paradise. A certain sage said : At the time of sun-rise four angels, two in the east and two in 
the west, proclaim every day by four different proclamations. One angel in the west proclaims : 0 
seeker of God, go forward. 0 seeker of evil, stop. Another angle says : 0 God, give good rewards to the 
charitable man and destroy the miser. One angel in the east says : Birth is for death and building is 
for destruction. Another angel says : Eat with satisfaction for heavy account and enjoy.

SIGNS OF RENUNCIATION: There are three internal signs of renunciation-(1) Not to be delighted for the 
things in present possession and not to be sorry for what is not in possession. God says : In order 
that you may not be grieved for what missed you and not be joyful for what you have got.' Rather you 
should do the opposite. Be sorry for having possessed wealth and be delightful for not having possessed 
it. (2) The second sign of renunciation is that to him, his praiser and defamer are equal. He does not 
feel delighted if he hears his praise, and sorry if he is defamed. (3) The third sign of renunciation 
is to establish love with God and make divine worship predominant in mind. The love for this world and 
love for God are two things which are like water and air in a pot. When there is water in a pot, air 
goes out as these can not remain together, He who establishes love with God remains engaged in that and 
turns away from other works. For this reason, some sage was asked : How far has renunciation taken you 
? He said : Up to the love of God. Love of God and love of the world can not remain together. A person 
of Marfat said When faith has connection with the outer surface of mind he loves both this world and 
the world next and works for both. When faith stays within the innermost heart, he hates the world and 
does not work for the world. For this reason, Hazrat Adam prayed : 0 God, I seek from you such faith as 
remains in the innermost recess of my heart. The saint Abu Solaiman ,,aid : He who is busy with 
himself, keeps away from human society. This is the stage of Arefin. Ibn Hawari said : I asked Ibn 
Solaiman Was Daud Tai a worldly renounced man ? He said : Yes, he was I said : I heard that he 
inherited from his a father twenty dinars which he spent during 20 years. When he hoarded the dinars 
how was he a worldly renounced man ? He said : You think that he reached the limit of perfect 
renunciation, but there is no limit to
renunciation. A man has got multifold natures and renunciation
is not complete till he is free from those natures. The last limit of renunciation is to give up 
everything except God, such a person
will not use even a stone as pillow as Jesus Christ did. So the sign of renunciation is that poverty 
and solvency, honour and dishonour, praise and defamation are all the same to him. This is the result 
of predominance of God's love in a person. Ihya-bin-Moaz said : To gift away what is in possession is 
the sign of renunciation. Ibn-Khafif said : I one finds peace of mind on the loss of a thing, it is the 
sign of this renunciation. Abu Solaiman said : Sufi cloth is one of the signs of renunciation. Sufiyan 
said : Little hope is the sign of renunciation. Nasrabazi said : A worldly renounced man is a sojourner 
in the world and an Aref is a sojouner of the next world. Ihya-bin-Moaz said : There ar three signs of 
renunciation (1) to work without connection, (2) to talks without greed (3) and to seek honour without 
power. He said : He who adopts renunciation gives you smell of condiment and mustard oil, but an Aref 
or gnostic gives you smell of camphor and otto. A man asked them : When shall I enter the shop of 
Godreliance, wear the apparel of renunciation add keep company with the worldly renounced men ? He said 
To sit with them is foolishness till you reach to stage when your belief of certainty does not become 
weak if your provision for three days is cut off. He said : The world is like a newly married girl. She 
goes with one who wants her. He who renounces the world makes his face black, shaves hairs and wears 
torn cloths, but a gnostic remains busy with God and does not do these things. The saint Sarri Sakti 
said : I travelled all the ways of renunciation. I got from it what I wanted but I could not earn 
renunciation living in the society of men. The sage Fazl said : God kept all the evils together in a 
house and made its key the love of the world. He placed all good in a house and made its key world 



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