REVIVAL OF RELIGIOUS LEARNINGS IMAM GHAZZALI'S
CONTENTS OF BOOK III
THE BOOK OF DESTRUCTIVE EVILS
Harms of anger, hatred and Envy 127
THE REVIVAL OF RELIGIOUS LEARNINGS
The Book of Destructive Evils
ANGER, HATRED AND ENVY
Anger is a fleak of fire. It arises from the fire of God in heart. It is being burnt like fire in the lowest part of the heart like fire under husk. The hidden pride in the mind of every oppressor and disobedient man is disclosed by anger like the fire that comes out by the rubbing of iron against stone. It appears to those who see with the light of sure faith. The conduct of the devil has found a place in the man in whom anger has found a place, as God says: The devil said: you have made me from fire and made him from earth-7:11Q. Earth is steady and calm and fire is unsteady, up-rising and burning. The result of anger is hatred on account of which a man is ruined.
HARMS OF ANGER: God says: God has created in the hearts of those who disbelieve the evil of ignorance. He sent down His solace upon His Prophet and the believers. God rebuked the unbelievers as they expressed indignation of anger arising out of untrue matters. He praised the believers, as God sent down upon them solace and consolation. One day a man came to the Prophet and said: 0 Prophet of God, give me order to do a short auction. He said: Don't be angry. Hazrat Ibn Omar said: I asked the Prophet: Give me a short advice by dint of which I may hope for good. He said: Don't be angry. Once Hazrat Abdullah-b-Omar asked the Prophet: What thing will save me from the wrath of God? The prophet said: Don't express your anger. The Prophet once asked some of his companions: Whom do you consider among you a strong man? They said: That is not so. He is the strong man who can control his passion at the time of anger. The Prophet said: He who has got physical strength is not a stronger man than one who can control his passion. He said: God keeps the secret affairs of a man secret who can swallow anger. Hazrat Solaiman said: 0 dear son, save yourself from excessive anger, as excessive anger makes the heart of a patient man light. God says: He (Yahya) is a chief and of pure character. . Akramah explained this verse by saying that 'chief' is the man who cannot be defeated by anger. Abu Darda'a said: I asked: 0 Messenger of God, teach me such an action which can take me to Paradise. He said: Don't be angry. prophet Ihya told Jesus Christ: Don't be angry. He said: I can't help but be angry. I am merely a
128 The Book of Destructive evils Vol-III
man. Then the Prophet Ihya said: Don't amass wealth. Jesus Christ said: yes, it may be done. The Prophet said: Anger destroys faith as condiment destroys honey He also said: If a man gets angry, he roams near Hell., Once a man asked the Prophet: What thing is hard? He said: Anger. He said: What thing will keep me away from God's wrath? He said: Don't express anger. Jafar-b- Muhammad said: Anger is the key to every evil. A certain Ansar said: Anger is the key to every evil. A certain Ansar said: Anger is the root of foolishness and its guide.
Muzahed said: Iblis said: The son of Adam cannot baffle me in three matters. (1) When any man is intoxicated, we fix a rope in his nose and direct him to whichever direction we like and make him do whatever we like. (2) When he gets angry, he utters such words which are unknown to him and does such works for which he becomes afterwards repentant. (3) When he is miserly with such a thing which is under his control, we engage him in such a work which is beyond his strength.
A wise man said: Appease your anger as it may lead to the disgrace of explanation. Hazrat Abdullah-b-Masud said: Look at the patience of a man at the time of his anger and at this trust at the time of his greed. If he does not get angry, what is your necessity of knowing about his patiences? When he does not have greed, what is your necessity of knowing about his trust? Caliph Omar-b-Abdul Aziz wrote to one of his governors: Don't punish at the time of your anger. When you get angry at any man, keep him in detention. When your anger is appeased, give him punishment in proportion to his crime. Don't inflict on him more than 15 stripes at thee time of punishing him.
Ali-b-Zayed said: A man of the Quraish used harsh words to Caliph Omar-b-Abdul Aziz who remained silent for a long time and then said: You wish that the devil rouses in me the pride of the Caliph and I treat you so rudely that you can take revenge tomorrow on me. A certain wise man said to this son, 0 dear son, wisdom does not remain safe at the time of anger, just as life does not remain safe in a burning fire. He who gets least angry is the most intelligent among them. If anger concerns any matter of the next world, it is called wisdom and patience, and if it concerns any matter of this world, it is called deceit, because the people say that anger is the enemy of intellect and. anger is a danger. Hazrat Omar used to say in his sermon: He who is safe
Vol-III Anger, hatred and envy 129
from amongst you grow greed passion and anger, gets salvation. Hazrat Hasan Basari said: The signs of a Muslim are the following -He will have strength in religion, he will firmly determine in easy matters, he will bring faith in sure matters, he will have knowledge of patience, he will pay his dues, he will adopt middle course in riches, he will have patience at the time of dangers. His anger will not prevail over him, his excitement will not throw him into danger, his passion will not prevail over him, his belly will not disgrace him, his greed will not make him light, his intention will not make him mean, he will help the oppressed and show kindness to the weak, he will not be extravagrnt in expense, he will not misuse his money, he will pardon if oppressed, he will pardon if an illiterate man gives him trouble and the people will remain safe at his hands.
A certain Prophet told his followers: Is there anybody among you who can promise with me that he will never get angry? In that case, he will gain my rank and will reside with me in Paradise and he will be my successor. A young man got up and said: He observed this during his life time. When the Prophet died, the young man became his successor and was named Jul-Kifl meaning he fulfilled his promise truly. Wahab-b-Monsabbah said: There are four elements of infidelity - Anger, passion, greed and foolishness.
WHAT IS ANGER? Know, 0 dear readers, that the Merciful God first created an animal in such a way that for some of his internal and external ingredients, his destruction was inevitable. Then God gave him such weapons for a fixed time as can save him from that destruction. The internal ingredients with which his body was formed are heat and cold which He set up against each other. In order to save himself from the external dangers, he has been given weapons, one of which is anger. It arises from his mind and removes the destructive elements. So God created the passion of anger from fire and kept it concealed in human mind. Whenever anything stands against his wishes, anger is enhanced in such a way that the blood of heart spreads through all of his veins and as a result his eyes become red and his face reddish. The birth place of anger is heart. The food of anger is revenge and greed. Anger is not appeased without these two things.
THREE KINDS OF MEN: Mankind is divided into three classes according to the degree of anger-(1) one class have got no
130 The Book of Destructive evils Vo1-III
anger, (2) one class have got extreme anger and (3) one class have got moderate anger. Regarding the first class off men, they are not good for absence of anger in .them. These persons are called man of impotence. Imam Shafeyi said: He whose anger cannot be aroused is an ass. He who has lost his strength of anger by equally is a man of very short intellect. God praised the companions of the Prophet: They are hard upon the unbelievers, but sympathetic towards one another. God said to His Prophet: Fight with the unbelievers and the hypocrites and be hard on them.9:73 Q. This hard treatment is the result of excitement of anger.
(2) Excessive anger is harmful. This prevails upon good qualities. Such a man then goes out of intellect, religion and divine service. He then loses his sense of right and wrong and the power of right and good thinking. He then loses his power of freedom. He becomes then a man afflicted with danger. The cause of excessive anger is an inborn nature and also the result of habit. There are men who remain naturally prepared to get angry soon. They have got a sense of anger in their in born nature. The Prophet said: The coldness of nature appeases anger and breaks up its nature;
ANGER ARISING OUT OF HABIT: There is such man who says: I shall not bear any kind of deceit. I won't bear any harsh word. He who hears it helps him in rousing his anger. Thus when his anger is aroused, he becomes blind and becomes deaf to advises and connsels. The man of thoughts is brave. Anger encompasses the man of thoughts as the steam of heated blood rises up to his brain. Sometimes it covers even the mind of sight. As a result, the eye becomes blood and to him the whole world becomes dark. Fire burns in him. The light of intellect is extinguished: As a result, his figure changes, his eyes become red, the hole of nose becomes changed. If he could have seen his body patiently at the time of anger, he would have become ashamed of it he could have brought his anger under control. The sign of anger upon his tongue is to use, abusive languages, upon his body attack, assault and murder. He attacks any man who comes in front. His opponents fleee from him. Out of wrath, he cuts his cloths, slaps his own face, beats the ground with his hands and feet, sometimes runs like a wild man and breaks plates and utensils. The effect of wrath on heart is hatred, envy, to be happy over his adversary's sorrows and sorry over his fortunes.
The Prophet said: Sa'ad has got wrath. I have got more wrath than him. God's wrath is more than mine. He said: He who is firm in religion among my followers is good. God says: Let not kindness hold you back in the religion of God. He who has got no wrath is unable to bear hardships for the progress of soul. Anger which rises at the hint of intellect and religion is good. Intellect arouses anger where it is. necessary and appeases anger where patience is necessary. The best way is to keep anger on the line of moderation. God enjoins man to stand on this border line. The Prophet said: The middle way is the best of all actions. So the two extremes must be avoided not to be angry at all and to be excessively angry. This is the straight path.
IS IT POSSIBLE TO ROOT OUT ANGER? Man loves something and dislikes something. So there is no alternative for him but to be angry. Something occurs according to his nature and something opposite to his nature. What agree with his natrue is loved by him and what disagrees with his nature is disliked by him. When an object of love is snatched away from him, he becomes angry and when a disliking thing is given to him, he becomes angry. So there are three kinds of things which a man loves.
(1) What man loves first is his constant necessary things-food, dress, habitation, physical health etc. If any man wants to strike your body, it is natural for you to get angry at, him. If anybody wants to take your cloth or make you naked, it is natural for you to get angry at him. (2) A man loves also such things of which he has got no necessity, such as fruits, abundant riches, servants and birds and beasts etc. Gold and silver are loved and hoarded. If any one seals them, it is but natural to get angry at him. (3) The objects of love of the third kind are special things for special people, such as books for the learned man. He loves them. If anybody takes away his books, be becomes angry at him. Such is the condition with the implements of expert industrialists and businessmen. The Prophet said with regard to the objects of love of necessary things: He who rises at morn with safety at his dwelling place, with his body sound and with provisions of his day, has been given as it were the world with its treasures. Nobody shall get angry except for the three kids of things enumerated above. With regard to these three kids of things, we shall narrate below about the control of anger.
Vol-III Anger, hatred and envy
132 The Book of Destructive evils Vol-III
Regarding the first kind of absolutely necessary things, anger should be kept under control and should be expressed according to the rules of Shariat. To root out anger from heart is impossible and unnatural. Regarding the second kind of necessary things, it is possible to get out of anger by practice and habit as it is possible to get out of heart love of unnecessary things. This can be done in the following way. Think that grave is your dwelling house and the next world is your permanent abode, this world is a resting place or a bridge over which~ou shall have to walk for the next world. So take what is absolutely necessary with you to cross the bridge and leave what is not necessary. So you shall have to leave the world and it is necessary to give up its love. Anger comes out of love and if such habits are formed, anger can be brought under control. The prophet used to have anger but he used to say: 0 God, I am only man, I have got anger as a man has got. Take my anger as a blessings, purification and nearness from me to any Muslim whom I rebuked, curse or assault. Abdullah-b-Amr said: 0 Messenger of God, I am writing it although you said it out of anger. he said: By One who sent me with truth, write also this that nothing but truth arises out of my tongue. The Prophet did not say: I have got not wrath. Rather he said: Anger cannot take me out of the limit of truth. In other words, I donot do it according to the behest of anger.
Once Hazrat Ayesha got angry. The Prophet said to her: What is the matter with you? Hazrat Ayesha said: Does not devil come to you? He said: Yes, he comes, but as I invoked God He made me prevail over him and he submitted to me. He does not enjoin me but good. He did not say: The devil does not come to me (devil means here anger). Hazrat Ali said: The Prophet did not get angry for any action of the world. When any true matter charmed him, nobody knew it and nobody got up to take revenge for his anger. He got angry for truth. This was found in his actions. Once a man rebuked Hazrat Solaiman to which he said: If my virtues become less in the scale, I am more heinous than your rebuked. If, however, my virtues become heavy in the scale, I won't suffer harm by your rebuked. He uttered it as the affairs of the next world kept him engaged. Once a man rebuked Hazrat Abu Bakr to which he said: What God has kept secret from you out of my faults is more heinous than your rebuked. A woman rebuked Malek-b-Dinar as hypocrite. He said to the woman: Nobody recognised me moreelhan you. That did not raise his
Vol-III Anger, hatred and envy 133
anger. Once a man rebuked the sage Shibli to which he said: May Goo pardon you if you have spoken the truth. May God pardon you if you have spoken a lie.
These examples show that the sages did not get angry as they were engaged in the affairs of the next world. There are three causes of not getting angry-(1) the first cause is that the mind is more engaged in more necessary things, (2) the second cause is that the mind is immerged in Tauhid, (3) and the third cause is that he knows that God does not love anger and so more love for God extinguishes the fire of anger. This is possible when the love of the world is ousted from heart.
CAUSES OF ANGER AND ITS MEDICINE: Know, 0 dear readers,, that you have known that the medicine of a disease is to remove the root cause of that disease. It is necessary to know the root cause anger. Jesus Christ was once asked: What thing is difficult? He said: God's wrath. Prophet Ihya then said: What thing takes near the wrath of God? He said: Anger. Ihya asked him: What thing grows and increases anger? Jesus Christ said: Pride, prestige, hope for honour and haughtiness. The causes which grow anger are self-conceit, self-praise, jests and ridicule, argument, treachery, too much greed for to much wealth and name and fame. If these evils are united in a person, his conduct becomes bad and he cannot escape from anger. So these things should bee removed by their opposite things. Self-praise is to be removed by modesty. Pride is to be removed by knowing one's own origin and birth, greed is to be removed by remaining satisfied with necessary things, miserliness by charity. The Prophet said: A strong man is not he who defeats his adversary by wrestle. But a strong man is he who controls himself at the time of anger.
We are describing below the medicines of anger after one get angry. The medicine is a mixture of knowledge and action The medicine based on knowledge is of six kinds.
(1) The first medicine of knowledge is to think over the rewards and punishments of appeasing anger that have come from the verses of Quran and sayings of the Prophet. Your hope for getting rewards of appeasing anger will restrain you to take revenge. Malek-b-Anas said: Hazrat Omar once was enraged upon a person and ordered him to be assaulted. Then I said: 0
134 The Book of Destructive evils Vol-III
Commander of the Faithful, pardon him, give advice for good works and keep away from the illiterate. Hazrat Omar said: Take pardon, enjoin good and keep away from the illiterate. He was as if thinking about this verse. It was his habit that whenever he released the man, Once Caliph Omar-b-Abdul Aziz ordered a man to be whipped. The latter recited the verse: Those who appease anger etc. Then he said to his slave: Leave him.
(2) The second kind of medicine based on knowledge is to fear the punishment of God and to think that the punishment of God upon me is greater than my punishment upon him. If I take revenge upon this man for anger, God will take revenge upon me on the Judgment Day. God said in one of the earlier scriptures: 0 son of Adam, when you get angry, remember Me. When I get angry, I will not include you among those whom I will destroy. One day the Prophet sent a servant on some work. When he returned very late, he said to the servant: I would have assaulted you if revenge would not have been taken for it in the next world. It is said that there was a king among the children of Israil who had a minister. When the king got angry, the minister showed him a writing in which it was written: Fear death and remember the next world. He used to read it till his anger was appeased.
(3) The third kind of medicine of anger based on knowledge is to take precaution about punishment of enmity and revenge on himself. You feel joy in having your enemy in your presence in his sorrows. You yourself are not free from that danger. You will fear that your enemy may take revenge against you in this world and in the next. (4) Another kind of medicine of anger based on knowledge is to think about the ugly face of the angry man which is just like that of a ferocious beast. He who appeases anger looks like a sober and learned man. So which figure do you like to take-the figure of a beast or that of a learned man? (5) The sixth mdicine of anger based on knowledge is to think that the devil will advise you saying: You will be weak if you do not get angry. Don't listen to it. (6) The sixth medicine is to think: What reason have I got to get angry? What God wished has occurred.
MEDINCINE BASED ON ACTION: When you get angry, say: I seek refuge to God from the accursed devil. The Prophet ordered us to say thus. He also recited this at the time of his anger. When Ayesha got angry, he dragged her by the nose and said: 0 dear Ayesha, say: 0 God, you are the Lord of my Prophet
Vol-III Anger, hatred and envy 135
Muhammad, forgive my sins and remove the anger of my heart and save me from misguidance. This is good. (2) If anger does not go by this means, you will sit down if you are standing, lie down if,you are sitting and come near earth, as you have been created of earth. Thus make yourself calm like the earth. The caused of wrath is heat and its opposite effect is to lie down on the ground and to make the body calm and cool.
The Prophet said: Anger is a burning coal. It burns in heart. Don't you see your eye-brows wide and eyes reddish? So when one of you feels like that, let him sit down if standing, and lie down if sitting. If still anger does not stop, make ablution with cold water or take bath, as if cannot be extinguished without water. The Prophet said: When anyone of you gets angry, let him make ablution with water as anger arises out of fire. In another narration anger comes from the devil and the devil is made of fire. Fire can be extinguished by water. So when anybody amongst you gets angry, he shall make ablution. He said: When you get angry, take to silence. Hazrat Abu Hurairah reported that when the Prophet got angry, he sat down from standing position and lay down from sitting position and then his wrath appeased. Hazrat said: Become careful, anger is burning coal in the mind of the son of Adam. Have you not looked at his reddish eyes and wide eye-brows? When you see nay of it signs, let him attach his face to earth. He hinted at prostration by this and said to keep the most honourable place among the limbs attached to the earth and to keep it calm.
It has been reported that when Hazrat Omar got angry one day, he wanted cold water his nose therewith and said: Anger comes from the devil and water removes anger. When Urwa-b-Muhammed was appointed Governor of yemen, Obay said to him: When you get angry, look to the heaven above and to the earth below and consider the Creator of both as supreme.
It has been narrated that Abu Zarr said to a man: 0 son of red mother (son of a maid servant). This news reached the Prophet who said: 0 Abu Zarr, I heard that you have back-bited your brother Muslim mentioning his mother. He said: Yes. Abu Zarr at once went to the man to please him but the man came to him before and tendered salam. This news reached the-Propht who said: 0 Abu Zarr, raise up your head up wards and look and then know that you are not better than a red or a black man.
136 The Book of Destructive evils Vol-III
Superiority is acquired only by action. Then he said: When you get angry, sit down from standing posture and lie down straight from sitting posture.
MERITS OF APPEASEMENT OF ANGER: God says: Those who appease their anger etc. He praised them. The Prophet said: God lifts punishment from one who appeases anger. God pardons the faults of one who admits his guilts to his Lord. God conceals the hidden faults of one who controls his tongue. The Prophet said: he who comes victorious over has passions at the tjme of anger is strong among you. He who pardons having power, is more patient among you. He said: Whose appeases anger though having will to translate his anger into action, God will fill up his heart with contentment on the Resurrection Day. In another narration-God will fill up his heart with belief and peace. He also said: Nobody swallows a more bitter pill than that of anger for the pleasure of God. He said: There is a special door of Hell through which no sinner other than one who gets angry illegally will enter. The Prophet said: Who digests anger having power to translate it into action, God will tell him to select any Hur in presence of all His creatures. He said: The drought of anger a man drinks is dear to God. God fills up his heart with faith who digests it.
WISE-SAYINGS: He who fears God cannot commit sin by his anger. He who fears God, cannot do what he likes. If he would not have been such, things would have turned otherwise. Lugman advised his son. 0 dear son, don't mark the brilliance of your face by begging. Don't take revenge of your anger by the actions of your hatred. Take account of your honour, your passion will then do you benefit. Ayub said: Patience of one moment removes many evils. Sufiyan Saori, Abu Khuzaa and Fuzail were discussing once about renunciation of the world. They said unanimously that patience at the time of anger and forbearance at the time of greed are the best divine service. The faith of one has become perfect in whom there are these three qualities-(1) faith in God, (2) when he is satisfied, his satisfaction does not arise out of any untrue matter, (3) when he is angry, it cannot take him out of truth. When he has got strength, he does not accept what is not for him.
MERITS OF PATIENCE: Know 0 dear readers, that patience is better than appeasement of anger, as patience is brought with difficulty in appeasing it. To have patience is necessary for
Vol-III Anger, hatred and envy 137
controlling anger and that requires great efforts. If one is accustomed to control anger, it becomes a habit and then anger does not arises. If it arises, he does not feel then anger does not arise. If it arises, he does not feel much difficulty in controlling it. That is the sign of the perfection of intellect. The prophet said: Knowledge is acquired by efforts. He who seeks good deeds gets them. He who saves himself from sin is secure. It appears from above that it is by efforts that patience is gained. It is acquired like the acquisition of knowledge. The Prophet said: Search for learning and with it peace and patience. Treat with modesty with the.persons who acquire learning and from whom you learn. Don't be included within the haughty learned men; if so, your ignorance will prevail upon your patience. The Prophet used to say in his invocation: 0 God, make me fortunate with knowledge, adorn me with patience, honour me with God-fear, and increase my dignity with tranquillity. The Prophet said: Search for high rank to God. The companions said: 0 Prophet of God, what is it? He said: Join the tie with one who severs it from you. Give one who deprives you. The Prophet said: There are five conducts of the. Prophets-shame, patience, taking cupping, cleansing feet and using perfume. The Prophet said: A Muslim gains the rank of fasting all the year and praying all the nights by dint of patience. A man is enrolled as an oppressor and haughty man, but his power does not extend beyond his family members.
Hazrat Abu Hurairah said: A man came to the Prophet and said: 0 Prophet of God, I have got relatives and I treat well with them but they treat evil with me. I do them good but they do me bad. They hold me in contempt but I keep patience at it. The Prophet said: If you stick to what you say, you are filling up their bellies as it were with the fire of ashes and till that fire remains in them, there will be a helper from God for you. A Muslim prayed: 0 God, I have got no such money as I can give it in charity. If any man mars my honour, consider it as my charity. God then revealed to the Prophet of the age: Tell him, I have forgiven his sins. The Prophet once asked: Cannot anybody amongst you like Abu Zam Zam? The companions asked: Who is Abu Zam Zam amongst your predecessors. He used to pray at dawn: 0 God, I had given my honour to one who opposes me. God says: When the illiterate call them, they say Salam. Hazrat Hasan Basari explained that God has spoken here of those who are patient. if they are held in contempt, they donot hold in contempt.
138 The Book of Destructive evils Vol-III
Hazrat Ali-b-Ali explained the word 'Howna' ikn the verse 'they walk upon the earth with modesty' as patience. When they pass by useless talks, they pass honorably. Muzahed said in its explanation-when they are given trouble, they forgive. The Prophet said: 0 God, let me not reach the age, nor let the age reach me in which the people will not follow the learned, nor be ashamed to be patient, whose hearts will be foreign but whose tongue will be Arabic. The Prophet said: There are such persons among you now with me who are patient and forbearing, then their successors and then their successors., Don't hold different opinions which will separate your hearts and be careful of the dangers of markers. The Prophet once said to Ashaz who came as a deputation to the Prophet: 0 Ashaz, you have got two conducts which God and his Prophet love. He said: 0 Messenger of God, my parents be sacrificed to you, what are these? The Prophet said: patience and gravity. These two conducts God gave you. The Prophet said: The Merciful God loves the patient, the shameful, those who love freedom, those who refrain from begging even though they have large family members, and the God-fearing. He hates the hard-hearted, the beggars with earnestness and the fools.
The Prophet said: Thee divine service of a man who has got not one of the three qualities will not be accepted-(1) such God-fear which restrains him from sinful acts. (2) such patience which restrains the fools (3) and such conduct with which he can live among the people. The Prophet said: When God will assemble all the creatures on the Judgment Day, a proclaimer will proclaim: Where are the persons of rank? Then a party will run towards Paradise hurriedly: When questioned about the reason by angels, they will say: We kept patience being oppressed, we pardoned when held in contempt. Then they will be said: Enter Paradise. How good are the rewards of the doers of good. .
Wise sayings. Hazrat Omar said: Acquire learning and seek peace of mind and patience for learning. Hazrat Ali said: There is no good in the increase of wealth and children, but there is good in the increase if knowledge, patience and not to take boast of divine service. When you will do good, praise God. When you will commit sin, beg forgiveness of God. Hazrat Hasan Basari said: Acquire learning and adorn it with gravity and patience.
Vol-III Anger, hatred and envy 139
Aqsam-b- Safi said: patience is the root of wisdom and all affairs. Hazrat Abu Sarda said: I saw the people as leaves without thorns and now I am seeing them as leaves with thorns. If you are acquainted with them, they will ridicule you. If you give them up; they will not give you up. They asked: What treatment shall we mete out to them? He said: If anybody rebukes you, don't respond to him. When you will be poor on the Resurrection Day, it will benefit you. Hazrat Muwayiah said: A man will not reach the rank of Ijtihad or giving opinion till his patience will not prevail over his ignorance and forbearance over his low desires and he shall not be able to reach that rank without the strength of learning. Hazrat Muwayiah asked Hazrat Aham: Who is the foremost brave man? He said: One who removed his ignorance by his patience. He asked him: Who is the most charitable man? He said: He who spends his world for good of his religion. God says: So that the enmity which exists between you and him may be removed as if he is your bosom friend-41:34Q. Hazrat Anas explained this verse by saying: His brother rebuked him. Then he said: If you tell lie, God may forgive you. If you speak the truth, God may forgive me. Hazrat Muwayuiah said to Hazrat Abaabah-b-Eusof: 0 Ahabah, how have you become chief of your people? He said: 0 Commander of the Faithful, I keep patience at the treatment of the illiterate. I give their beggars charity and help them in their needs. He who works like me is like me, I am better than him. Hazrat Zainal Abedin said: One day a man rebuked me. I gave him a cloth to put on and ordered one thousand dirhams to be given to him. Khalil-b- Ahmed said: It is well-known thatif you do benefit to a man who ill-treats with you, such thoughts occur in the mind of the latter that prevent him from doing further ill-treatment with you. Hazrat Wahab-b-Muhnabbah said: He who shows kindness is shown kindness. He who keeps silent remains safe. He who holds in contempt is defeated. He who makes haste, commits mistakes. He who greeds to do evil deeds does not remain safe. He who does not give up quarrels and disputes is rebuked. He who does not hate sins, commits sin. He who hates sins becomes skinless. He who follows the instructions of God, is safe. He who takes God as friend, becomes the friend of all. He who does not invoke God. falls in want. He who does not fear the punishment of God, falls into disgrace. He who invokes the help of God gains upperhand.
140 The Book of Destructive evils Vol-III
Once a man asked the sage Malek-b-Dinar: I heard that you have back-bited me. He said: You are then more honourable than me. If I have done so, I presented my virtues to you. The wise Loqman said: Three qualities cannot known without three times(1) A man of patience is not known except at the time of anger, (2) a brave man is not known except at the time of battle, (3) and a friend is not known except at the time of need.
WHEN REVENGE PUNISHABLE? Know, 0 dear readers, that to treat an oppression with oppression is unlawful. To back-bite for back- biting, to spy for spying and to rebuke for rebuking are unlawful. This is the condition with all sins. But to take revenge or retaliation is allowed according to the rules of Shariat. The Prophet said: If anyman back-bites you for what is in you, don't back-bite him in return for the guilt in him. The Prophet said: If two men rebuke each. other, the sin devolves upon one who first rebukes till the rebuked man does not exceed the limit. Two mutual rebukers are devils, accusing each other falsely. One day a man was rebuking Hazrat Abu Bakr who remained silent for long. When he began to take revenge, the Prophet got up. Hazrat Abu Bakr said: 0 Messenger of God, you were silent till the man,rvas rebuking but when I began to take revenge, you stood up. The Prophet said: An angel was replaying on your behalf till you remained silent, but when you began to retaliate, the angel went away and the devil came in. So I cannot remain where the devil came in.
FOUR CLASSES OF MEN IN THE MATTER OF ANGER: (1) Some men get suddenly angry and get appeased suddenly. (2) Some get angry late and their anger goes late. (3) Some get angry late and it ceases soon. This is best. (4) Some get angry quickly and it ceases late. This is the worst. The Prophet said: A believer gets angry quickly and quickly it appeases. Imam Shafeyi said: He who does not get angry if it is aroused is an ass. He who is given pleasure but is not pleased is a devil. The' Prophet said: Beware men have been created of different natures. Some of them get angry late and it stops quickly. Some of them get angry quickly and it stops quickly. One compensates the other. Some get angry quickly and it stops late. Beware! he who gets angry late and it stops quickly is best and he who gets quickly angry and it stops late is worst. Hazrat Omar did not punish a man when he found him intoxicated with wine as it would have been inflicted out of anger. He said: I don't like to whip a Muslim out of anger.
Vol-III Anger, hatred and envy 141
When a man aroused the wrath of Caliph Omar-b-Abdul Aziz, he said to him: If you had not grown my anger, I would have certainly punished you.
HATRED: Know, 0 dear readers, that when a man wishes to take revenge at the time of anger, it creates hatred in mind. Hatred means the prevalence of the effect of anger in mind. The prophet said: A believer has got no hatred. There are eight evils arising out of hatred-(1) envy, happiness at the sorrows of another, non- co-operation, contempt, back-biting, ridicule, assault, to give no loan. If anybody is free from hatred, he gets free from all these eight guilts.
Muastah was a relative of Abu Bakr and was adopted by him, He took part' in the battle of Uhud and spread the rumour of slander against the character of Hazrat Ayesha. Hazrat Abu Bakr heard it and took oath that he won't spend further for Mustah and help him. God then sent this revelation: A man among you possessing grace and wealth should not take oath not to spend for relatives, the poor and the refugees in the way of God. But let him pardon and forgive. Don't you like that God should forgive you? 24:22Q. Hazrat Abu Bakr said: Yes, we love it. Then he began to spend for him. This is the rank of the truthful.
THREE CONDITIONS OF A MAN OF HATRED: There are three conditions of a man of hatred at the time of his power. (1) His mind remains steady inspite of hatred. In other words, the hated person gets his kindness as he used to get it before from him. (2) The man cherishing hatred pardons the hated man, rather he treats good with him. (3) The third kind of man oppresses the man of hatred. The first kind is the condition of the religious men, the second kind is the condition of the faithful and the third kind is the condition of the worst man.
MERITS OF GOOD TREATMENT
IN LIEU OF EMITY
Pardon means not to take revenge though one has got power to take it and to exempt such guilty person from enjoin good an keep away from-the illiterate-17:199Q. God says: your pardon is near God fear. The Prophet said: By One in whose hand there is my life, had I been an oath-taker, I would have taken oath in three matters. (1) Wealth does not decrease by charity. So give charity. (2) If a man pardons the faults of another for pleasure of
142 The Book of Destructive evils Vol-III
God, He will give him more honour on the Resurrection Day. (3) If a man opens the door of begining for himself, God opens the door of poverty for him. The prophet said: Modesty does not increase but progress. So take to modesty, God will raise you up. Pardon does not increase but honour. Charity does not increase but wealth. So give charity, God will show you mercy.
Hazrat Ayesha said: I did not see the Prophet taking revenge for any wrong till anybody did an unlawful thing ordained by God. When he did any unlawful things were presented before him, he used to select the easier one till it contained no sin. Hazrat Oqbah said: Once I met the Prophet and handshaked with him hastily out of respect and he said: 0 Oqbah, shall I not inform you of limitless virtuous acts of the travellers of the world and the next? Join the tie of relationship which is severed by anybody. Give charity to one who deprives you of something. Pardon one who does any wrong to you. The Prophet said: When the Merciful Lord will raise up all the creatures on the Resurrection Day, a proclaimer will proclaim thrice from underneath the Throne: 0 followers of Tauhid, God has forgiven you. So forgive one another.
Hazrat Abu Hurairah reported: The Prophet prayed two rak'ats of prayer within the Ka'ba after Tawaf after the conquest of Mecca. Then he entered the Ka'ba and placing his hand on the door of the Ka'ba addressed the Quraish: What do you see and what treatment do you expect? The Quraish said: We are your brothers and children of the patient and kind uncle of yours. They repeated it thrice. The Prophet said: I am telling you what Eusof had said to his brothers: To-day there is no reproach against you. May God forgive you and He is the most Forgiving, the Most Compassionate. They then went away as if they arose from graves. Afterwards they all accepted Islam.
Huzail-b-Amr said: When the Prophet came to Mecca, he placed his two hands on the door of the Ka'ba and he was surrounded by the people. He said: There is no deity but God. He is one there is no partner for Him. He has proved His promise true. He has helped UIis servant and He has also routed the combined forces of t} a enemies. Then he said: 0 assembled Quraish, what do you say and what treatment do you expect? I said: 0 Messenger of God, we pray for good and pardon from you. You are our honoured brother and the son of our kind uncle.
Vol-III Anger, hatred and envy 143
Now all powers are in your hands. The Prophet said: I say what my brother Joseph said: To-day there is no reproach against you. May God forgive you.
The Prophet said: When all the people will be waiting on the Judgment Day, a proclaimer will proclaim: Come you all who will get rewards from God and enter Paradise those people who used to pardon men. Then thousands and thousands of people will stand up. He will admit them in paradise without account. The Prophet said: When a guilty man is brought before any judge, he is not bound to punish him. God loves pardon and He is forgiving. Then he read this verse - Pardon and forgive. The Prophet said: He who has got three qualities with belief will enter Paradise by whichever door he likes and he will marry any black-eyed Hur he likes-(1) He who pays his dues secretly, (2) he who recites after each compulsory prayer eleven times chapter Ikhlas (3) he who exempts his murderer from the charge of his murder. Hazrat Abu Bakr asked: 0 Messenger of God, will the rewards be obtained if there is only one quality? The Prophet said: yes, even if there is only one quality in him.
Yezid-b-Mysarah said: If you invoke against a man who has done you wrong, God then says: One with whom you did wrong will also invoke against you. If you wish, I will make your invocation delayed for acceptance up to the Resurrection Day and forgive you. One Christian monk came to Caliph Hashem who said to him: Have you thought over Alexander? Was he a Prophet? The hermit said: He was not a prophet but he was given four qualities. (1) He used to pardon having had power. (2) He used to fulfill promises when he promised. (3) He used to speak the truth. (4) and he used not to put off to-day's work for to-morrow.
MERITS OF KIND TREATMENT
Kind treatment is good. Its opposite evil is harsh and cruel treatment. The result of anger is harsh treatment and the result of good conduct is kind and good treatment. The cause of cruel treatment is anger and the cause of anger is too much greed and love of influence. For this reason, the Prophet praised kind treatment highly. He said: 0 Ayesha, he who has been given the gift of kind treatment has been given abundant portion of good of this world and the next and he who has been deprived of kind
144 The Book of Destructive evils Vol-III
treatment has been deprived of abundant portion of good of this world and the next. The Prophet said: When God loves the members of a family. He gives them the quality of kind treatment. He also said: God does not give for benevolence what He gives for kind treatment. When God loves a man, He gives him the quality of kind treatment. The members of a family who are deprived of kind treatment are deprived of the love of God. The Prophet said: God is kind and loves kind treatment. He gives for kind treatment what He does not give for harsh treatment. The Prophet said: 0 Ayesha, mete out kind treatment, as God intended to give honour to Able Bait. So show path towards the door of kind treatment. The Prophet said: He who has been deprived of kind treatment has been deprived of all good. The Prophet said: Do you know for whom Hell-fire would be unlawful? every modest man of sweet tongue, easy and near man (to God). The Prophet said: God will treat kindly with the ruler on the Judgment Day who accorded kind treatment and who was modes. He said: Kind treatment is the sign of fortune and foolishness is the sign of misfortune. He said: Delay comes from God and hastiness from the devil.
The Prophet said: When you wish to do a thing, think of its result. If it is easy, do it or else refrain from doing it. The Prophet said to Ayesha: o Ayesha, take to kind treatment, as it adorns a thing in which there is kind treatment and it disgraces a thing from which it is taken off.
Wise sayings. Hazrat Omar once heard some complaints against one of his governors. He called the people and addressed them thus: 0 people, I have got rights over you that you should advise me in my absence and help me, in my good deeds. I have got rights over you whoever he may be. Know that there is nothing so dear to God as patience and kind treatment of a ruler and there is nothing so displeasing to God than ignorance and foolishness of a ruler. Know that one who keeps the persons under his control in punishment will get punishment from the Unseen. There is a Hadis that learning is the friend of a believer, patience is his minister, wisdom is his proof, divine service is its protector, good treatment is his father, modest treatment is his brother, patience is the commander of his forces. A wise man said: How nice is faith? Learning makes it nice. How good is learning? Action makes it good. How good is action? Kind
Vol-III Ant'r, hatred and envy 145
treatment makes it beautiful. As patience makes learning beautiful, so one thing makes another thing beautiful. Hazrat Amr-b-As asked his son Abdullah: What is kind treatment? He said: A ruler's kind treatment with his subordinate officers. He asked: What is foolishness? He said: To oppose your Imam or leader and to be modest to one who does you harm. The sage Sufiyan once said to his disciple. 0 Abu Muhammad, describe it. He said: To put every thing in its proper place, to mete out good treatment in its proper place, to use sword in its proper place, and to whip in proper place. It appears from this that it is necessary that there should be harsh treatment with modesty and kind treatment with harshness. So it is best to take the middle course between kind and harsh treatments.
There are many sayings of the Prophet regarding envy. The Prophet said: As fire destroys fuel, so envy destroys virtues. He. said: Don't envy one another, don't forsake one another, don't hate one another, don't trade over the trade of another. 0 the servants of God, be brothers to one another. Hazrat Anas said: Once we were seated near the Prophet who said: Jbst now one of the inmates of paradise will pass by this way. It was then found that an Ansar was comigg by that pathway. Abdullah-b-Omar informed him of the Prophet's saying about him and asked him for what thing he earned tl@t rank. He said: I don't envy any Muslim for any gift on him from God. The Prophet said: No man escapes from three things-(1) bakonjecture, (2) envy and (3) evil sign. I am teaching you the mean%, to get rid of these things. If there is bad conjecture, don't believt4t. When you find evil sign, don't believe it, when you hate, don't inquire about it. The Prophet said: The habits of earlier generations have attacked you envy and hatred. Hatred is sharing. I don't say that it shaves hairs but it shaves the religion. By One in whose hand there is the life of Muhammad, you will not enter paradise till you believe. You will not believe till you love one another. Shall I not inform you what thing will establish you on it? Spread peace among you. The Prophet said: Poverty was about to come near infidelity and envy was about to overcome Taqdir. The Prophet said: The behaviors of the other nations will soon attack my people. The companions asked: What are the behaviors of other nations? He said: Pleasures and enjoyments, heedlessness, abundant wealth,
146 The Book of Destructive evils Vol-III
rivalry in the world based on envy, to think one another as distant, to envy one another, to raise rebellion, and then to live in dangers and calamities. The Prophet said: Don't expressed joy at the sorrows of your brothers, perchance God may forgive him and let you down in that calamity.
It is narrated that Moses went to meet his Lord and found a man under His Throne. Seeing his high rank, there grew a spirit of rivalry in his mind and he asked his Lord: What is the name of this man? God did not'communicate his name but said: I will inform you about his three good deeds-(1) he does not envy for nay gift of God on man, (2) he does not become disobedient to his parents, (3) he does not roam with slander. Prophet Zaoharia said: God says: An envious man is enemy of My gifts, dissatisfied with God's decree, and dissatisfied with the division of My gifts which I have distributed among My servants. The Prophet said: The greatest of what I fear for my followers is the increase of their wealth for which they will envy one another and quarrel with one another. The Prophet said: Pray for help for fulfillment of secret necessities, as every wealthy man is an object of envy. The Prophet said: Six persons will enter Hell before accounts are taken each for one sin. The companions asked: 0 Prophet of God, who are they? He said: (1) A ruler for his oppression, (2) a desert Arab for his unjust love for his tribe, (3) a rich man for his pride, (4) a village man for his foolishness, (5) and a learned man for his envy.
A STORY OF ENVY
A man approached a king and said: Treat good with a religious man for his good works and release the wicked as his evil deeds are sufficient as a punishment for him. A. certain courtier of the king grew envious of another courtier seeing his fortunes. He complained against that man to the king saying that he had defamed the king as he had a very offensive smell of mouth. The king said: How can I know that it is true? He said: You can know it when the man will place his hand on his nose. He then invited the man to his house and gave him fresh onion to eat with meal. After eating, the man went to the king and fearing bad adore of onion from his mouth placed his hand on his mouth and nose. The king was then convinced of the truth of the statement of the man and sent him with a letter to his governor to put him to deat'i. On the way the envious man requested the
Vol-Ill Anger, hatred and envy 147
religious man to hand over the letter to him thinking that it contained words of rewards. Accordingly, the letter was handed over to the envious man who took the letter to the governor. When the governor got the letter, he at once put him to death. The religious man went next day to the king as usual, but the latter was surprised to see him alive and asked him about his letter. He said that he handed it over to another man. The king asked him why he closed his mouth and placed his hand over his nose at the time of his interview with him. He said that the man had invited him and gave him meal with fresh onion. So for fear of bad smell, he placed his hand over his mouth and nose. The king said: Sufficient is the wrong deed of a person for his punishment.
WHAT IS ENVY?
There is no envy except for gifts. When God showers gifts on any person, two conditions arise in your mind. The first condition is that you do not love those gifts for him and like that those gifts should go away from him. The second condition is that you do nct wish that the gifts should go away from him but that those gifts may be bestowed on you also. This is rivalry or competition in good works and gifts. The Prophet said: A believer makes efforts based on competition bout a hypocrite envies. Envy is unlawful under all circumstances and there is no distinction between Muslims and non-Muslims in matters of envy. God distributed His gifts among His servants in the world. To envy it is to express displeasure at the distribution of God. So there is no cause of envy. The Quran says: If a good thing reaches you, it grieves them and if a disaster afflicts you, they become joyful-9: 50. The name of this joy is envy for the well- being of others. God says: A majority of the people of the Book wish that you should return to infidelity after you believed -3: 29. God mentioned the story of Joseph and also mentioned the envy of his brothers towards Joseph. They said out of envy: Kill Joseph or throw him into a well-12:8Q. God says: Mankind was only one Ummat or people. Thereafter owing to envy, they separated themselves. God says: They became separate after knowledge came to them, being rebellious. God gave them knowledge in order to unite mankind and united their hearts by affection for His divine service. But they differed among themselves out of envy and everyone of them wished that he alone would yield authority.
148 The Book of Destructive evils Vol-III
Hazrat Ibh Abbas said: When the Jews fought with a people before the Prophethood of Muhammad (p.h) they used to pray: 0 God, we invoke you in the name of that Prophet whom you have promised to send and with him a Book. As a result, they used to get victory. When the Prophet from the descendants of Ismail was sent to them, they could recognise him but they did not believe in him. God says in this connection: Before this, they prayed for victory against the unbelievers but when he appeared to them, they disbelieved him. This is out of envy.
To have competition is not unlawful, rather it is commendable. It is an effort towards further progress and advancement. God says: And in this, let those aspire who have aspiration-$3: 26Q. God says: Complete one another towards forgiveness from your Lord-57: 21Q. They are like two servants who both try to please their master and hope to defeat the other in this matter. The Prophet mentioned about them. He said: There is no envy for two persons- (1) God gave wealth to one person and also gave him power to spend it in the path of truth. (2) God gave learning to another who acts up-to it and teaches it to the people`. The Prophet then explained the words of Abu Kabsha Anmari and said: The example of this people is as the example of four persons. (1) They are like the person whom God gave wealth and learning and who spends wealth in useful ways according to his learning. (2) They are like the person whom God gave learning but not wealth and yet he says: 0 God, had I had wealth like so and so, I would had spent it as he spends. They will get equal rewards. The rewards which a rich man will get by spending money will be equal to those which a poor man will get only by cherishing the desire to spend it. (3) They are like the person whom God gave wealth but not learning and who spends it in sinful acts. (4) They are like the person whom God did not give learning and wealth and who says: Had I had wealth like so and so, I would have spent it in sinful acts like his expense. They are equally sinners. The Prophet rebuked the persons of such intention to commit sins. The Prophet said: No believer is saved from three matters-(1) envy, bad conjecture and bad omen. These are outlets from them. When you feel envy, don't run after it.
THREE STAGES OF ENVY
There are three stages of envy according to status. (1) The first stage is that the envious person loves that wealth and gifts
Vol-III Anger, hatred and envy 149
should go away from the person envied and that they should not come to him again. This is unlawful and worst condition. (2) The second stage is that the envious person wishes to have the gifts of the envied person, such as to have beautiful house like his house, to have a beautiful wife like his wife and to have power like him. This is lawful but not commendable. (3) The third stage is that the envious person does not wish to have identical things for himself but to have similar things. This is condemned in some cases and not in others. God says: Don't greed for the gifts which God bestowed on some of you.
SEVEN CAUSES OF ENVY
There are seven causes of envy arising out of sight of the fortunes of another. (1) Enmity. This is the worst cause. As he is your enemy, you don't wish that he should have gifts and riches and other things of the world and such a person likes that these gifts of God should go away from him. The object of God- fearing men is opposite. They don't envy anybody for these things. God mentioned the envy of the unbelievers towards the believers in this verse: If any good reaches you, it grieves them and if any evil affects you, they become pleased 3:118.
(2) Dislike of another's good. An envious man greatly dislikes the well-fare and good of another and it gives him too much pain. He can't bear when the person envied gets any power, recognition and honour.
(3) Pride. The envious man takes pride over the envied man and holds him in contempt. God says about the unbelievers in verse (43:31Q). They say: Why has not this Quran sent down to some leading man in either of the two cities? Do they divide the mercy of their Lord?
(4) To express wonder. The unbelievers say: Shall we believe in a man like us? They expressed wonder at the claim of the Prophet of prophethood. Thus they cherished hatred against the Prophet seeing his influence and power.
(5) Fear of failure of object. For instance, two men work with the same object, but one of them envies another fearing the failure of his object. This is like the envy of two co-wives.
150 The Book of Destructive evils Vol-III
(6) Greed of name and power. This is also a cause of envy between two persons. This applies in all spheres of life-worship, industry, beauty, wealth, power etc.
(7) Narrowness of mind. This is another cause of envy. One becomes glad to see the loss of fortune of another and wishes that all blessings and gifts should be bestowed on him alone.
True religious men have got no envy. The real cause of envy is love of the world. Those who love the world envy one another for wealth, riches, power and name and fame. The religious persons have got no such greed and as such they have got no envy. They desire the next world and its comforts. There is no narrowness in Mar'fat. The religious persons also do not envy one another in matters of religious advancement. They are praised by God: I have taken out of their hearts envy. They are brethren sitting facing one another upon thrones.
MEDICINE OF ENVY
(1) Envy is a very serious disease of heart. It cannot be cured without knowledge and action. The medicine of envy based on knowledge is to know that envy is injurious for this world and the next but not harm reaches the envied person, rather it benefits him. When you will knew it by deep insight, you will consider it as your enemy and it is injurious to you. (2) Envy is injurious to your world. The fire pangs of envy burns your mind and for that your mind is filled' up with sorrows and difficulties. (3) The envied person suffers no harm in this world and the next. It is clear that there will be no harm of the envied person. God gives properties and wealth to a person for a certain term and there is decree for every. age. A certain Prophet complained to God against the oppression of a certain queen's administration. God then revealed to him: Till her rule does not end, you live elsewhere fleeing away from her. In other words, there is no alternative to change the decree which I have written for her. So bear patience till the end of her time. If by envy, gifts would have gone, God's gifts would not have been bestowed on you or anybody in the world. The unbelievers envied the Muslims for the gift of faith. God says: Many people of the Book like out of envy that you should return to disbelief after you have believed.
(4) The benefit. of envied person in this world and the next world is open. The envied person will gain benefit by your envy,
Vol-III Anger, hatred and envy 151
but you think that he is oppressed. The envied person if back-bited will get the various of the envious person. The
worldly anxieties of the envious person are a gain of the envied person. A desert Arab asked the Prophet: 0 Prophet of God, what is your opinion about a person who loves a people without seeing them? The Prophet said: He is with one whom he loves. A desert Arab asked the Prophet during his sermon: 0 Prophet of God, when will occur the Resurrection? He said: How have you prepared for it? He said: I donot pray much for it, nor fast much, rather I love God and His Prophet. The Prophet said: You will be then with one whom you love. Hazrat Anas said:, The Muslims did not feel so much joy after their conversion to Islam than that of this day.
It appears from this that the great matter of the Muslims was to love the Messenger of God. Hazrat Anas said: We began to love the Prophet, Abu Bakr and Omar but we could not do divine service like them but yet we cherished hope to live with them. Hazrat Abu Musa said: I asked, 0 Messenger of God, one. man loves those who pray, but he does not himself pray. He loves those who fast but does not himself fast. The Prophet said: He will be with one whom he loves. One man said to Caliph Omar-b-Abdul Aziz: Every man says from the beginning: If you can be learned, be a learned man. If you cannot be a learned man, be a student. If you cannot be a student, love him if you cannot love him, don't hate him. He said: Glory to God, God made a way for us. The Prophet said: Three classes of men are inmates of Paradise-(1) One who does good deeds, (2) one who loves the doers of good, (3) and one who removes difficulties from the doers of God. So you should not get out of these three classes by taking recourse to envy and hatred. The devil has entered your mind and keeps you out off these three classes. Evil returns to you as God says: 'The evil machination falls on those who contrive it' Many a time it happens that the snare which is laid for an enemy falls on the person who contrives it.
(2) MEDICINE OF ENVY BASED ON ACTION
To do an action opposite to the cause for which envy aries is its medicine, be it with words or with actions. If your object is to mention the guilts of the envied person out of envy, then the medicine to remove it is to praise him. If the cause is pride, its
152 The Book of Destructive evils Vol-III
medicine is to treat with him with humility. If envy advises you to destroy another's property, its medicine is to help him.
To drive out envy from mind. Envy is an evil of the mind and not of any organ of the body. God says: They do not find in their minds narrowness for what they were given. God says: They wish that you should turn infidels. God says: When any good reaches you, they become sorry. The action of envy is expressed through back-biting and falsehood. So he will be sinner for entertaining envy in mind. When it is expressed in outer organs of the body, to seek pardon becomes compulsory for it.
The Revival of Religious Learnings
The Book of Destructive Evils - Part II
****End of Chapter 5 - Volume 3 *****
- Sign the Guest Book - Imam
This Page was last updated on: 18 Jun 2007 21:31:57 -0400
This page is constantly being updated since July 2001. So check back often.
A reader is needed for PDF files and it is available free of charge from Adobe.
Site © Copyright 2003 by Islamic Philosophy Online, Inc. A not-for-profit organization dedicated to academic study of Islamic philosophy. Individual content may have its own individual copyrights. See copyright information.