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Soul and its attributes 7

The Book of Destructive Evils

The Book of Destructive Evils is the third book of Imam Gazzali's world renowned master piece Ihya Ulum-id-Din or the Revival of Religious learning. This work is an attempt to translate the third part of the Ihya not too literally but in substance. This book deals with soul and its attributes, conduct, greed and passion, benefits and harms of tongue, anger and envy, attachment for the world, love for wealth and harms of miserliness, power, show, pride and erroneous beliefs.
A literal translation is avoided in order to omit some unnecessary things which were prevalent in the then society, such as arguments of sects and sub-sects and also to omit the sayings of personages and sages of less importance but it should be noted that no verse of the Quran and saying of the Prophet has been omitted in this work.
Translations of the other three books of the Ihya have by the grace of God already come out of press, namely the Book of worship, the Book of worldly usages and the Book of constructive virtues.
I pray to the Almighty Allah that He may guide the people of the world in accordance with the teachings of the Holy Quran and Sunnah and the spirit in which the Ihya was written by Hujjatul Islam (proof of Islam), a title received by Imam Gazzali and about which it has been said "If all the books of Islam were destroyed, it would be but a slight loss if only the Ihya of Gazzali were preserved."


It is by means of soul that man is the Lord of creation as it is by means of soul that man acquires the knowledge of God and His attributes and by no other organs of the body. It is by means of soul that man can go to the nearness of God and make efforts to realise Him. So soul is the king of the body and its different organs are its servants to carry out its orders and commands. It is accepted by God when it remains free from things other than God. When it is attached to things other than God, it drifts away from God. It is the soul which will be asked and rebuked. It becomes fortunate if it is purified and cleaned, and it becomes fortunate if it is kept impure. It is the knowledge of soul which is the root of the knowledge of God. When man does not know himself he does not know God. Majority of men are ignorant of soul and its attributes as screen is cast between soul and baser self. God says: "God moves between a man and his soul and controls it and its attributes. It is between the two fingers of the Merciful. It sometimes reaches the last limit of the devil and sometimes rises so high as to the throne of the Almighty. He who does not enquire about his soul is included among those persons of whom God says in the following verse: They forgot God and so He made their souls forgetful 19:67. They are the transgressors. It is therefore essential to know soul and its attributes which is the root of religion.
What has been said in the earlier pages of this book relates to the outward organs and bodily limbs. Now we shall narrate the attributes and evils of soul which are the subject matter of secret knowledge.
(1) QALB has got two meanings. It means first a piece of flesh in the left breast called heart which is hollow in the interior,
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which is filled up with black blood and which is again a source of Ruh or life. Heart is the centre or mine for circulation of blood. The detailed description of heart is to be found in Anatomy. It exists in breasts and lower animals and appertains to the material world. We shall not refer to it in our book. The second meaning of Qalb is soul with which we are concerned here. It is an immaterial thing or formless Latifa or basic subtle element which has got connection with the material heart. It is just like unseen electricity. It is the principal thing in a man. It catches knowledge of God and spiritual world., It is punished and rewarded. The connection of soul with heart is the connection of attributes with the bodily limbs, or a machine with the machine man, or a house with its inmates. This connection is of two kinds. One kind of connection is with Ulume Mokashafa or spiritual knowledge. But in this look, our object is to narrate Ulume Muamalah or knowledge of worldly usages. Its second connection requires the knowledge of the secrets of soul. The Prophet did not throw light on this object and so we should refrain from it. We shall translate the word Qalb in this book as soul or an immaterial thing Latifa with its attributes.
(2) RUH: It has got also two meanings. It means first a material thing within the heart which vibrates the whole body like the current of electricity and which runs through the veins of the body. It is called 'life'. It has got the power of touch, hearing, sight, smell and the power of the other limbs of the body. It is just like radiation of light of a lighted lamp pitched in a corner of the house. It is a subtle gas or steam which creates the heat of the heart. Our object is not that. The second meaning of Ruh is an immaterial subtle thing which is called soul and not life. God says: They ask you about Ruh. Say: It is a command from my Lord. 17:85.

(3) NAFS: It has got also two meanings for our purpose. The first meanings is passion or baser and lower self. Passion is a comprehensive word consisting of greed, anger and other evil attributes. The Prophet said: Your greatest enemy is your passion lying by your two sides. The second meaning of Nafs is soul as described above. When Nafs assumes calmness and has removed passion, it is then termed Nafs Mutmainna or satisfied soul as God says: 0 satisfied soul, return to your Lord satisfied and satisfying him-89: 27. In the first meaning, Nafs is with the, party of devil. When the calm nature of Nafs does not become perfect, it
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is called Nafs Lawwamah or self-accusing soul, as such a soul rebukes one for neglecting divine duties. If soul gives up protests and surrenders itself to the devil, it is called Nafs Ammarah or passion addicted to evils. The Quran refers to this in verse 12:53?
(4) AQL: It has got many meanings two of which we shall narrate here. The first meaning of Aql is intellect with which true nature of things of this material world is known and its seat is in soul. The second meaning of Aql is power to understand the secrets of different learnings. It is a subtle essence called knowledge which is an attribute. Attribute and the thing which contains it are two different things. Intellect is the name of both. This is supported by the following Hadis. The first thing which God created is intellect. The attribute of intellect is an immaterial thing but the attribute cannot stand without a material thing. So the place of intellect should be created first or along with it. Knowledge is the content of intellect and so it was created first.
ARMY OF SOUL: God says in years 71: 31- None except He knows the army of your Lord'. There are armed soldiers in soul. Their real nature is not known and nobody knows their number except He. Soul has got two armies. One army can be seen by the external eye and another army cannot be seen except by the internal eye. These two armies are necessary for upkeep of the dominion of this king. Courtiers, servants, helpers, etc. are the armies of the king which can bee seen by the external eyes. Similarly, hands, feet, eyes, ears, tongue and other outward and inward organs are the armies of soul. They are all servants of soul which rules over them. They have been created to obey them. They cannot go against soul. When the soul orders the eyes to open, they open. When it orders the feet to walk, they walk. Their submission is like that of angels of God. The angels have been created to obey God and they cannot go against Him. These armies are necessary for soul for its journey to God, as conveyance and food are necessary for body. It has to cross many stations to meet Him for which it has been created. God says: I have not created Jinn and man but that they should worship Me-51:56. Body is the conveyance or carrier of soul and its food is knowledge. In order that it can acquire its food, the ingredients which are necessary are goods deeds. To reach. God is impossible till the body does not remain sound.
This world is the seed ground for the next and a station of guidance. It is called Duniya or near planet as it is the closest
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station out of many stations. So to acquire food in the world is necessary.
TWO ARMIES OF HEALTH: To take food which keeps the health of body is necessary and to avoid that which is harmful to it is to be avoided. So it is necessary to approach two armies, the hidden army of greed for food and drink and the open army of bodily organs. So greed for food and drink have been created in soul as they are necessary for the upkeep of the body, and the other organs are the arms of greed. Two armies are also necessary to remove the outer enemies who are destructive evils, such as anger etc. with which these evils are removed.
ARMIES OF SOUL ARE THREE: (1) One army does benefit to soul, the army of greed. It can be termed Will also. (2) The second army is anger which moves the bodily organs to give the object of greed power and strength. (3) The third army works like secret emissaries-powers of sight, hearing, smell, taste and touch. These defined powers are entrusted to different organs. For those armies, there are open arms-fingers to catch, eyes to see etc. The third army is divided into two. One army lives openly, such as attributes of five organs-hearing, sight, smell, taste and touch. Another army lives secretly in the horizon of brain. They are five-(1) power of idea (2) power of thought (3) power of memory, (4) power of retention (5) and power of consolidating them together. These five powers are in brain and they secretly stay therein.
These are the armies of soul. A man of weak intellect will feel difficult to understand them but the wise get benefit from these discussions. We shall try to make those who are weak, in understanding these things by illustrations.
(1) Soul is a king over body as a king over an empire. In the empire of soul, hands, feet and other organs are like different business men and industrialists in town. Greed is a collector of revenue in that town, anger is its police, intellect is it minister and soul is its king. The collector greed is like one who collects food and anger is like a police who keeps guard over it. The collector greed is a downright liar and a deceiver. It ostensibly wishes good but there is destructive poison in it. The reign of soul over the region of body is similar. It goes on well if all organs and
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attributes are under the rule of soul. When soul takes the help of its minister intellect, it rules over greed keeping anger in control. In order to bring anger under control, sometimes it seeks the help of greed and then its character and conduct become good. He who goes away from this path, becomes like one about whom God speaks in the following verse: Have you looked towards one who takes his passion as deity-25:43? God says: He who follows his greed is like a dog. If you attack it, it will prolong its tongue. If you give it up, it will also prolong its tongue-7:176. God speaks in another verse about the person who controlled his passion: As for such men as entertained the fear of standing before their Lord and controlled their souls from low desires, their abode will be Paradise-79:41.

(2) Second illustration of secret army of soul. Know, 0 dear readers, that the body is a town and intellect or conscience rules over that town like a king. Its armies are its external and internal senses and its subject are its organs. Sexual passion and anger are the enemies of the region of body and soul is its guard. If it fights against its enemies and defeats them and compels them to do what soul likes, its actions become commendable and it returns to the Almighty. God says that He gives superiority to those who fight with their lives and properties over those who worship sitting-9:20Q. If the soul acts as guard like the frontier guards and neglects the organs of the body, it is punished. On the Resurrection Day, it will be asked: 0 dishonest guard,-you have eaten food and drunk milk, but you have not inquired into lost animal and have not arranged for treatment of diseased animals. To-day I will take retaliation on you for this. In the Hadis below, such a Mujahid or fighter has been praised: You have returned from the little fight to the greatest fight.

(3) Third illustration of secret army of soul. Intellect is like a rider, greed is like a horse and anger is like his hunting dog. When the rider is expert and his horse and dog are trained, success can be obtained in hunting. When the rider is inexperienced, horse disobedient and dog biting, then the horse does not obey the rider and the dog does not run obeying him. Similarly, when intellect is mature and greed and anger are submissive to intellect, success in sure, but if intellect is immature and greed and anger are not under control, there is surely ruin.
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KNOWLEDGE AND WILL: The attributes for which man's soul becomes fit to approach God and honoured are knowledge and will. Knowledge means knowledge of the material and spiritual world and reality of intellect. Then matters lie behind the knowledge gained by the senses. Lower animals have got no share in it. Regarding will, when a man can understand by his intellect the result of any action and know what will bring good, then there grows in his mind will to obtain that good and to do that action. It is not the will of greed or the instinct of the lower animals. It is opposed to greed. Intellect wills what will be its good in future and spends for it. There is greed of taking delicious food in illness but intellect prohibits its eating. A wise man refrains from eating it. So soul of man is endowed with knowledge and will and not the lower animals. Even little children are void of these attributes. There are two stages of acquiring knowledge on the part of a boy. The first stage is his learning of all preliminary necessary things and to know lawful and unlawful things. He cannot gain expert knowledge at this stage but becomes close to it. The second stage is his acquisition of knowledge by learning and thinking. He becomes then like an expert writer.

THREE MODES OF GAINING SOUL-POWER: (1) Mode of Ilham or inspiration. God's inspiration comes on some souls "unknowingly and for that they gain spiritual knowledge. (2) Some souls acquire spiritual power by learning and efforts. (3) Some souls acquire spiritual power quickly and some late. There are degrees of these acquisitions in the case of Prophets, friends of God, wise and learned men. This advance is unlimited. There is no limit of knowledge about God. The rank of a Prophet in this regard is highest. All secrets are disclosed to him without his efforts. A child in its mother's womb does not know the condition of a boy. A boy does not know the condition of a grown-up-man. A grown-up man does not know the condition of an intelligent man and his acquired learning. Similarly, an intelligent man does not know the blessings, mercy and gifts showered by God on the Prophets. These blessings are also cast upon those souls which remain prepared and become fit to receive them. The Prophet said: "There is your Lord's blowing in the days of your life. Beware and be prepared for it". The meaning of this preparation is to remove the impurities that have fallen on soul as a result of commission of sins and to purify it. It
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can be understood from the following Hadis: God comes down every night to the nearest heaven and says: Is there any invoking man whose invocation I shall accept? In another Hadis: The religious man remains eager to meet Me, but I am more eager to meet him. In a Hadis Qudsi, God says: I advance one cubit for one who advances to Me half a cubit.
From this, it is understood that God does not withhold His mercy to shed the luster of knowledge on soul , but the people themselves are to be blamed for they do not cleanse their souls or minds from the impurities they heaped on them. As air does not enter a pot full of water, so knowledge of God does not enter a soul or mind if it remains filled up with things other than God. For this reason, the Holy Prophet said: Had the party of the devil not moved round the minds of the children of Adam, they would have seen the spiritual world. From this, it is understood that knowledge is the special attribute of human soul. The knowledge about God's being, attributes and actions is the most honorable and on that strength a man becomes perfect and within this perfection there lies his fortune of approaching God.
PECULIARITIES OF HUMAN SOUL: Body has been framed for accommodation of soul which is again the house of knowledge. Divine knowledge is the human goal and its speciality. An ass and a horse are the same for carrying loads but a horse is superior to an ass, as horse has got additional qualities of beauty and running fast which an ass and other animals lack in. similarly there is difference between a man and an angel. The man who engages all his limbs, thoughts and actions to please God is like an angel and fit to be called an angel. God says about Joseph: Surely he is an honourable angel-12:21. He who makes efforts only for his physical comforts comes down to the class of an animal. He becomes then envious like an ox, greedy like a pig, biting like a dog, eats like a camel, takes revenge like a leopard; cunnings like a jackal and clever like a devil-the embodiment of the above evils. There is no such limb or senses which do not help a man to reach God. He is successful who walks in that path and he is unsuccessful who is misguided.
Man's fortune lies in Taing God's vision as the ultimate goal, the next world as his permanent abode, this world as his temporary abode, body as his carrier and the limbs as his servants.
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Human soul is the centre to realise them and a king over the region of body. His power of idea works like a post office in front of his head. All news gathered by senses are accumulated there. The power of thinking keeping behind the brain works like a treasurer, the tongue as its interpreter, the five senses like secret police. Eyes have been given power to receive various colour, ears to receive different voices, nose to smell and other limbs to receive other news and they send them to the power of ideas which send them to the power of thinking which send them to the king soul.
Hazrat Ka'ab Ahbar said: I went once to Hazrat Ayesha and said: Man's eyes are his guide, his two ears are his guards, his tongue his interpreter, his two hands are his wings, his two feet are his news carriers and his soul is his king. When the king soul is pleased, his armies are also pleased. Hazrat Ayesha said: I heard the Prophet say thus. Hazrat Ali said by way of illustration of human soul: God has got many pots in this world. The dearest to God among them is that which is most soft, pure and strong. Then he explained and said: The soul which is most firm in religion, most pure in faith, most kind in treatment with brethren is dearest to God. This can be seen from the following verse: They are hard upon the unbelievers and kind to one another among them- 48:29. In another verse; God says: His light is like a niche wherein there is lamp-24:35. To explain this verse, Hazrat Ka'ab said: The meaning of light is the light of soul of a believer. God says: Or it is like darkness in a fathomless sea. Hence the soul of hypocrite has been spoken of as an illustration.
NATURES OF MEN: There are four natures of man (1) beastly nature, (2) animal nature, (3) devilish nature and (4) angelic nature. Anger is a sign of beastly nature along with enmity, hatred, rebuke, attack on people etc. His animal nature is seen when his sexual passion becomes strong. He has got devilish natures like deceit, fraud conspiracy etc. He has got angelic nature such as divine service, worship of God, doing good to all. As he has got the divine thing soul, he has got the nature of lordship and he likes to be free from servitude and meanness.
The roots of these four natures are in a man and centred in human soul. If he has got only the nature of a lower animal, he becomes like a pig or a dog. If he has got only the nature of the
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devil, he becomes a devil. If he has got divine qualities, he becomes a truly wise man. If he follows sexual passion and greed, he acquires the evils of impurity, shamelessness, meanness, miserliness, hatred and other bad habits. If he obeys the dictates of anger, he acquires heinous conducts such as haughtiness, pride, love of power, self-praise, jokes, contempt for others, oppression. If he obeys the devil, he acquires evil conducts such as deceit, deception, treachery, fraud etc. When he controls the above evils, he is endowed with divine qualities such as wisdom, knowledge, certain faith, knowledge of the natures of all things. When he becomes free from sexual passion and anger, he acquires the following virtues-pardon, contentment, self satisfaction, asceticism, piety, God fear, contentment and shame. If he keeps anger under control, he gains heroism, kindness, patience, silence etc.

SOUL IS A MIRROR: Soul is like a mirror in which the above evils and virtues are reflected. The virtues make the soul shining, resplendent and bright and the evils, sins and guilts make it dark. The Prophet said: When God wants good of a servant, He appoints an admonished in his soul. He said: He who has got an admonished in his soul has got a guard from God. Zikr or God's remembrance becomes lasting in his soul. God says: Beware, souls get consolation by the remembrance of God 13: 25. The sins are like smokes full of darkness which covers the soul. One sin after another comes over the soul like a layer of smokes till his soul gets completely enveloped wit darkness. As a result, soul becomes removed from God. It is the seal on soul of which God speaks in verse 83:14-Never, it is seal on souls for what they have earned. God says: Had I wished, I would have surely punished them and sealed their souls."

When sins accumulate in soul, it becomes blind to good things of religion. The sage Maimun-b-Mehran said: When a man commits a sin, a black spot falls in his soul. When he makes repentance, it blots out.. Again when he commits sin, the spot increases. Thus if sins are committed one after another, the soul becomes dark and that is the seal on soul. The Prophet said: The soul of a believer is bright and there is a bright lamp in it. The soul of an unbeliever is black and blind.' The polish of soul is obedience to God with opposition to passion. Sins are impurities on soul. He who proceeds towards sins makes his soul dark.

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FOUR KINDS OF SOUL: The Prophet said: Soul is of four kinds. The first kind of soul is bright in which there is a lighted lamp. It is the soul of a believer. (2) The second kind of soul is black and it is the soul of an unbeliever. (3) The third kind of soul is confined within cover and it is the soul of a hypocrite. (4) The fourth kind of soul is mixed with faith and hypocrisy. Faith in such a soul is like a plant which the water grows and if there is other liquids like blood and pus, its growth is retarded. God says: When a party of the devil attack those who are God fearing, they remember God and they keep on looking 7:201. The brightness of soul is gained by Zikr which finds consolation in a person who has got God-fear. So God-fear is the gate of Zikr which is again the gate of Kashf or inner revelation which is again the gate of salvation and the gate of having the fortune of Divine vision.

ILLUSTRATION OF SOUL: Soul is a container of knowledge. As a mirror has got connection with figure and form, so also a soul has got connection with objects of knowledge. In other words, picture, or figure can be seen if placed in front of a mirror. So also different objects of knowledge are reflected in soul. A mirror assumes the colour of a figure placed before it. Similarly soul assumes the colour or nature of an unknown object of knowledge. Every object of knowledge has got a nature and every nature has got a figure. That figure is reflected in the mirror of soul and is clearly visible. Mirror is a thing figure is a different thing and its shadow in the mirror is a different thing. Similarly a man has got three different things-(1) soul, (2) real nature of a thing, (3) and the knowledge of its real nature. Soul is the name of a thing with which knowledge is gained. Shadows of everything are reflected in it. So the container of knowledge, object of knowledge and knowledge itself are inter connected. For instance, to catch a shield is an action. Here there are three things (1) hand, (2) shield and (3) catching. These three things connected together produce an action. Similarly knowledge is a thing which is connected with soul with the shadow of the thing therein and the falling of that shadow therein. Knowledge does not arise unless the object of knowledge falls in soul. Fire cannot be said to fall in soul to produce knowledge of fire. Shadow of fire in soul is sufficient to produce it. The real man does not remain in mirror. The shadow of his real self remains in mirror. Similarly real shadows of all things fall in soul and that is called knowledge.
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FIVE OBSTACLES OF GAINING DIVINE KNOWLEDGE: There are five obstacles or hurdles which prevent real pictures in a mirror. A picture cannot be seen in a mirror if the thing with which the mirror is made is spoiled or if impurities fallin the mirror, or if the mirror is not directed towards the picture, or there is something between the mirror and the picture, or if the picture is not in front of the mirror. Similar is the case with human soul. It has got five obstacles. Human soul has got the fitness to receive true pictures of everything, but if it cannot do its function, it will be understood that knowledge cannot come owing to the five
(1) The first obstacle is a natural defect of soul as the souls of boys.
(2) The second obstacle is the impurities of sins owing to greed, passion and low desires. If the impurities of sins are not removed just like the impurities in a mirror, truth is not reflected in it. The Prophet therefore said: The intellect of a man who is accustomed to commit sins goes away. It never comes back to him. In other words, rust falls in his soul unless it is removed by a good deed and repentance. If dust falls on a mirror, it can be removed by a duster. Soul becomes bright if it does not follow low desires and urge of passion. God says: I shall show My paths to those who strive hard about Me-29:69 The Prophet said: God grants such wisdom to one who acts up to his learning which he did not know before.
- (3) Third obstacle of soul. As nothing can be seen if a mirror is not directed towards a figure or picture, so real picture of a thing does not fall in soul if it is misguided from the real object of research and enquiry. Brightness of truth is not reflected in soul owing to the object of enquiry not being directed towards soul although it is clean and pure. The picture of an object about which a man thinks falls in his soul. He who confines his thoughts and efforts to the different modes of health gains. health. So he who engage his whole attention and energy to the attainment of Divine love can acquire it. But he whose attention is diverted only to worldly pursuits gets them no doubt but is not blessed with divine love and grace. It is an obstacle and a hurdle to acquisition of Kashf or secret divine knowledge.
(4) Fourth obstacle of soul. If there is something between a mirror and a picture or figure, the figure cannot be seen in mirror.
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So also if there is screen between a human soul and. a thing desired, its true picture cannot be reflected in soul. Truth cannot come out from a screened soul. Whose follows his passions and low desires, screen falls in his soul. The beliefs which take root in early years of life from the surrounding environments paint the future of a man and create obstacles in finding out the truth of a thing. This is also true in case of open Taqlid or blind faith in a sect. Such a man does not accept what is opposed to his belief although it is true and correct.
(5) Fifth obstacle of soul is ignorance. This ignorance occurs in connection with a special object. As a result, defect is cast upon the object of enquiry. For instance if a student enquires about an unknown subject it will be impossible too know it until he ponders over the thing connected with the object of enquiry and that pondering is not along the prescribed mode of the learned, as the object of enquiry is to be known on the basis of other learnings. Mixture of two learnings produces knowledge of a third kind, as a young one of a camel is obtained owing to the cohabitation of a camel and a she camel. He who wants to get a young one of a horse, he can't get it if he unites and ass and a camel, but he will get it when a horse and a she horse cohabit. Similar is the case with every knowledge. It has got two roots and there is prescribed mode of the union of the roots. Knowledge cannot arise unless the mode of union is not known. If one does not stand in front of a mirror, he cannot see his face therein. If the mirror is kept in front of face, he can't see his back. So there is certain methods of acquiring knowledge.
So there are five hurdles in the reflection of truth in souls for which we hardly see truths. Soul is a celestial thing and it has got natural attribute of knowing truth. God says about this soul. I have placed this trust upon the heavens and the earth and the mountains, but they all refused to carry it and feared it, but only man has borne it. Surely he is oppressive, ignorant-33:72 Q. It appears from this that soul has got such a special attribute which the heavens and the earth and the mountains do not possess. For' that they have been made subservient to man. This trust is Ma'arfat or Divine knowledge and Tauhid.
However, soul is naturally fit to bear this trust, but it cannot reach its real nature owing to the obstacles narrated above. For this reason, the Prophet said: Every child is born upon nature,
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but his parents make him a Jew, or a Christian or a Maginan. The prophet said: If the party of the devil did not move in the soul of the son of Adam: he could have seen the divine realm. It appears from this Hadis also that the above five obstacles prevent a man from seeing the divine realm. The Prophet was once asked: Where is God-in earth or in heaven? He said ;God is in the soul of a believer. In another Hadis, there is this: The Prophet was asked Who is the best man? The Prophet replied: The believer whose soul is Makhmus is best. He was asked: What is Makhmus? He said: That soul is Makhmus which is God-fearing, in which there is no deceit, deception, treachery, contrivance and hatred: For this reason, the Prophet said: When God-fear lifted from my soul the screen (of sins), my Lord saw my soul? Whoever lifts up the screen of sins from his soul, the pictures of unseen things are, disclosed in his soul. Then he can see paradise which extends in heaven and earth. Unseen world is outside of external eyes. When this world of sight and the unseen world are united at a time, it is termed Hazrat Rabubiyat or the presence of, God's being which can encompass everything. There is no existence of anything except that of God, His actions and His sovereignty. His servants are included within His actions. The object of all actions is to make soul pure and bright. The Quran says: He who purifies it will get salvation-91:8Q. The object of purity of soul is to gain light of faith therein or to enkindle the light of divine knowledge. Regarding this, God says: God expends the breast of one for Islam whom He wishes to guide. God says: Whose breast God has expanded for Islam, he is on light from his Lord-39: 22.

THREE STAGES OF LIGHT OF FAITH: This light of faith in soul has got three stages. In the first stage, the light is that of faith of ordinary man. It is the light of blind faith. In the second stage, it is the light of faith of the followers of Fiqh or jurisprudence. It is mixed with some sort of proof. In the third stage, it is the light of faith of the friends of God. It is the dazzling ray of certain faith. Take for instance the stay of Zaid within his house. It can be proved in three ways. The first kind of proof is belief on hearing. If you have belief in a certain man and you know that he does not speak lie, you will believe his word that Zaid is in his house. This is the belief of ordinary man based on hearing only. When the little boys attain maturity, they hear from their parents and relatives that there is God, that He is almighty, Creator of everything, that He sent apostles with books. They believe them
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on hearing. This belief will be the cause of salvation in the next world. But they will be in the first stage of the fortunate but not included within the near ones, as there is no opening of their inner eye (Kashf) with the help of certain faith and no expansion of breast, and there may be defects in-heresay.
The second kind of proof is as follows. That Zaid is within his house can be guessed from a hearing of his voice and talks coming from his house. So this belief is stronger than that of heresay. There may be also mistake of voices and words. The third kind of proof is to enter into the room and see Zaid with open eyes. This is real knowledge gained by direct sight. This knowledge is like that of the friends of God and near ones. There is no mistake in this belief.
There are however degrees of this knowledge or Kashf among them. If Zaid is seen in front in light or sunlight, it is perfect sight. If he is seen in the house from a great distance or like his figure at night, it is less perfect. Similarly there are different degrees of spiritual vision and knowledge.
TWO KINDS OF KNOWLEDGE: Knowledge which thus falls in soul is of two kinds knowledge concerning intellect and concerning religion. The former is also of two kinds-natural knowledge and acquired knowledge. Acquired knowledge is also of two kinds worldly knowledge and next worldly or spiritual knowledge. We understand by knowledge concerning intellect basic natural and necessary knowledge. It is not acquired by blind faith or heresay. It is that which is gained but not known how and from where, for instance the knowledge that the same person cannot stay in two different places at the same time and that the same thing cannot be at the same time old and new. This preliminary knowledge is imprinted in a boy's mind in his earliest years. He does not know wherefrom this knowledge comes. The acquired knowledge concerning intellect is gained by learning. These two kinds of knowledge is called intellect or wisdom.

The Prophet said with regard to the natural intellect from birth: God created nothing more honourable to Him than intellect. With regard to the second kind of intellect on heresay, the Prophet said to Hazrat Ali: 'When the people come close to God by good deeds, you will be able to come close to Him by the
Vol-III The Book of Destructive evils 21
help of your intellect. It is not possible to come close to God by natural intellect. It has to be acquired. So human soul has got power of sight like that of external eyes. As there is power of sight in eyes, so also there is power of as on in human soul. One of its names is intellect or wisdom. The power of vision is a basic Ingredient which in not found in a spiritually blind man. It is found only in a person having inn& sight though he closes his two eyes or remains in darkness. All things are seen by the eye of knowledge. There is delay in the rise of knowledge till one attains maturity as the tablet of soul does not become prepared then for light of knowledge. Pen is an instrument to depict pictures of knowledge as God says: He taught with pen. He taught men what he knew not-8: 2Q God's pen is not like the pen of man as His attributes are not like the attributes of man. His pen is not made of material or other things. So there is distinction between inner vision and outer sight.

SOULS VISION AND BLINDNESS: The vision of soul is subtle essence or Latifa with which spiritual things are seen. This essence is like a rider and its eye is like a conveyance. For it, the blindness of the rider is more harmful than the blindness of the conveying horse, that is the blindness of soul is more harmful than the blindness of eye. These two things have got no connection with each other. Still there is some similarity between external sight and internal sight. God explained the sight of soul in this verse: Soul has not disbelieved what it saw-53:11. Here it has been said that the soul has got power of sight God says in another verse: I showed thus the sovereignty of heavens and earth to Abraham -6:75. Here external sight has not been spoken of as others also have been given this power, but there is mention here of internal sight. Opposite to it is the internal blindness God says: Who so is blind in this world will be blind in hereafter-17:71. This is the blindness of soul. This is the narration of knowledge concerning intellect.

KNOWLEDGE CONCERNING RELIGION: This knowledge is acquired by blind faith in the words of the prophets. It can be earned after studying the Quran and Sunna of the Prophet or hearing them For salvation of soul, even though knowledge concerning intellect is necessary, it is not singly sufficient. As for health of body, some measures are necessary, but they are not alone sufficient without their actual application. Special
22 Soul and its Attributes Vol-III
methods of medicines for cure should be learnt from the physicians. Only intellect is not sufficient. He who calls towards blind faith only without application of intellect is a fool. On the other hand, he who relies on intellect only after giving up the Quran and Sunna is a proud man. The two must be kept together. Education concerning intellect is like food and religious education is like medicine. A diseased man meets with harm if he takes only food after giving up medicine. Similar is the case with diseased soul. Its cure is not possible without profitable medicine of Shariat. The medicine of Shariat is the duties prescribed by the Prophets for purity of soul. He who does not treat his diseased soul by the medicine of divine service as ordained by Shariat and thinks the leanings of intellect as sufficient faces ruin.

SCIENCE IS NOT OPPOSED TO RELIGION: Some think that science is opposed to religion. This is not at all correct. Such a man sets up one learning of Shariat against another. The reason is his failure to co-ordinate the two. As a result, such people go out of religion. Such man is just like a blind man who stumbles down against furnitures of a house and says: Why have these furnitures been kept in the path way? The house owner says: They are in their proper places. It is your blindness which is responsible for your stumbling. This is also the case with one who thinks that science is opposed to religion.
TWO KINDS OF SCIENCE: There are two kinds of science, material and spiritual. Medical Science, Mathematics, and other technical sciences belong to the leanings of this world. The religious sciences are the education concerning soul, God, His attributes and actions. He who makes efforts with regard to the worldly sciences and becomes expert has shortcomings in most cases in being expert in religious sciences. For this reason, Hazrat Ali cited three illustrations to explain this. He said: This world and the next world are like two scales or like the east and the west or like two co-wives. You will find that he who is intelligent in worldly matters and expert in Medical science, Mathematics, Philosophy, Geometry etc. is fool in the religious sciences. He who is experienced in the religious sciences is inexperienced in the worldly learnings. For this reason, the Prophet said: Most of the inmates of Paradise are indifferent.' In other words, they are inattentive in worldly matters. Hazrat Hasan Basari said: We have seen such a people whom you would think if you had seen
vol-III The Book of Destructive evils 23
them as insane and mad. If they had seen you, they would call you devils. So the worldly educated men deny any wonderful event of religion. God says: Those who do not hope to meet Me and remain satisfied with this world's life get consolation therein. God says" Whoso is heedless of remembering Me and does not wish except this world's life, it is the limit of his knowledge. It is only the Prophets who combined in themselves the knowledge of this world and the next. They were helped by the Holy Spirit and given divine powers.

MEANS OF ACQUIRING SPIRITUAL POWERS: Know, o dear readers, that there are different conditions of knowledge which are not all necessary. Some of them fall suddenly in mind called Ilham and some of them are acquired by efforts. Knowledge not acquired by efforts is of two kinds. One kind of such knowledge is not known from where it comes or how it comes. Another kind of such knowledge comes through an angel who throws it into one's soul. That is called Wahi or revelation. It is revealed c my to the prophets. Ilham of the first kind is thrown on the souls of Prophets as well as other religious personalities. In short, human soul is the place of disclosing truths of all things, but the obstacles mentioned earlier stand as screens. Those are screens between Lauhe Mahfuz (Guarded tablet) and the mirror of soul. Picture of everything that will occur up to the Resurrection Day have been preserved in this Guarded Tablet. Real condition of every affair is reflected in the mirror of soul: That is like the picture in front of a mirror. If there is no screen between the two, it is see in the mirror of soul from the Guarded Tablet. The wind of Latifa or essence sometimes removes the screen from the mirror of soul, so as to disclose what is in the Guarded Tablet. Sometimes the future events can be seen in
,dream. By death, all the screens are removed. In wakeful state also, sometimes the screen is removed provided secret mercy is showered on soul. Then gusts of knowledge spring forth in soul from unseen things. It lasts for a short time. Ilham and Wahi (inspiration and revelation) cannot be obtained by human will. God says: It is not for a man to talk with God except by means of Wahi or from behind the screen or by means of a means of a messenger who reveals with His permission what He wishes.

MERITS OF KNOWLEDGE BY ILHAM: The Sufis love knowledge through Ilham or inspiration. For this reason, they
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do not like to have education or read books or hold arguments. They say that the primary source of acquisition of knowledge is
the saving of oneself from the condemnable evils, severing all connections and directing all efforts towards God. When it is earned, God Himself becomes the caretaker of human soul. He saves it by enkindling the light of knowledge in soul. When God takes care of his soul, mercy falls in it, light sparkles, breast expands and the secrets of spiritual world are disclosed to him. By God's help, screens of darkness are removed from the upper portion of his soul and real nature of divine affairs comes to him. So it is the duty of God's servant to purify his soul and to make efforts with true and sincere intention. These matters are opened to the prophets and friends of God. Lights flow over their breasts. It is not due to their acquired knowledge by efforts, but it is due to their asceticism, to their full freedom from worldly connections and to full direction of their energies towards God. God becomes for one who becomes for God. To them the first step is to cut off all worldly connections, to make the soul vacant for God, to give up all efforts for family, property, children, houses, name and fame and then to confine themselves in performing compulsory and optional duties and sit in meditation with a mind absolutely free from everything. Their thoughts are centred only in one Being. Even they become free from interpretation of the Quran, Hadis and other books and matters. They sit in lonely places and invoke only Allah, Allah with humility of mind till they reach such a stage, when they give up even the movements of their tongue. Then the influence of their tongue enters their soul which recites Allah, Allah. The pictures of words are then effaced from their souls are only their meanings remain therein.
It is your option to regain this stage., You, have got no power. to claim mercy of God, rather you may be fit to receive its blowing. At this time, sparkling ray of truth may sparkle in your soul first like attracting electricity but it may not last or it may last. You will then continue to purify your soul and hope to receive God's blessings. This mode is very troublesome and its fruit is time-consuming. If you can gain one stage, it is difficult for you to stay in it as the devil will constantly mislead you. the Prophet said: The heart of a believer is more changing than a pot (of hot water). During this time of efforts and trials, health may deteriorate.
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Ilham and acquired knowledge. Know, o dear readers, that the wonderful action of soul is outside the knowledge gained by the senses as soul is outside the knowledge of the senses. So to understand the actions of soul, some illustrations of the material world are necessary. Only two of them are cited here.
FIRST ILLUSTRATION: Take for instance that a well has been dug underneath the ground. There are two ways of pouring waters in it, one way through pipe or canal and another way is to dig the well very deep, so that water may gush forth from its bottom. The second mode is better as water obtained in this way is more pure and lasting. Similarly soul is like a well, knowledge is like water and the five senses are like pipes or canals. Knowledge like water comes to the soul through the help of five organs like pipes or canals. If you wish to get pure knowledge, you shall have to shut up the five senses as you shut up the pipes or canals to get pure water into the well and dig it very deep so that pure water may gush forth from the bottom. The filth in the bottom of well must be cleared to allow pure water to gush forth from the bottom. So also in order to get pure and unadulterated knowledge, you shall have to shut up knowledge gained by the five senses because such knowledge is full of harasses, superstitions and errors.
Question. How can knowledge come out of soul when it remains without knowledge?
Answer. These matters are the wonderful actions of soul. It is difficult to get them from the worldly learnings. It may however be mentioned that real condition of everything was recorded in Lauhe Mahfuz or Guarded Tablet. That was recorded also in the souls of angels who are near God. As an architect prepares a plan before building a house and then builds it according to his plan, so also the Creator recorded His plan in the Guarded Tablet of everything of His reaction in the heavens and earth from first to last. Thereafter He takes out everything according to that prepared plan.
There are four stages of this material world-(I) its existence in the Guarded Tablet before creation of the world; (2) this material world comes into being according to this plan, (3) the world of ideas follows this material world, and (4) the world of intellect follows this world of ideas, that is its pictures fall in
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human soul. Some worlds are material and some immaterial. In the immaterial worlds also, one is more spiritual than another. These are strategy of God. Look at the eye-ball. Though it is small, the pictures of the heavens and the earth fall in it. Then it comes within ideas and then it falls in soul. Man does not take cognisance of it till it reaches the soul. Praise be to God who created wonderful power in soul and eyes and He also made soul and eyes of some blind.
So pictures of the world fall in soul sometimes by the help of five senses and sometimes by the help of the Guarded Tablet as picture of the sun falls in eyes. Again picture of the sun falls in water as it falls in eyes. When obstacles are removed from between soul and Guarded Tablet, soul can see many things and thus knowledge arises therefrom. Then no help of senses necessary for such knowledge. It is just like the gushing forth of water from the deep bottom of a well.
TWO DOORS OF SOUL: One door of soul is open towards the spiritual world which is the world of angels and the Guarded Tablet. Another door of soul is open towards the five senses and it is connected with the material world. The former door open to the spiritual world can be better understood from dreams in which one can see some matters of future and past events. One can tell them without the necessity of knowledge gained form his five senses. That door is. open to one who remains engaged in solitude in remembrance of God. The Prophet said: the dwellers of solitude have preceded. He was asked: 0 Prophet of God, who are the dwellers of solitude? He said: Those who have been made pure by the remembrance of God, those whose burdens have been taken down by the remembrance of God and those who will come on the Resurrection Day free of burdens. Then he described their virtues and read these words of God: I kept My face in their front. Do you know in whose front I have kept My face? Does anybody know what I will give them? Then God says: First I throw light in their souls. As a result, they broadcast the news they get from Me.
There is difference in the knowledge of the prophets and friends of God and the knowledge of the learned and the scientists. Knowledge of the prophets and the friends of God come out of that gate of souls which remains open towards the spiritual world, and the knowledge of the learned and the
Vol-III The Book of Destructive evils 27

come out of that gate of souls which remains open towards the spiritual world, and the knowledge of the learned and the scientists comes which remains open towards the spiritual world, and the knowledge of the learned and the scientists comes out of that gate of souls which remains open to the material world through the help of five senses. So it is impossible for the latter to acquire spiritual knowledge. This illustration will make
one to understand the difference between the two work.
SECOND ILLUSTRATION: The destination between the actions of the learned and of the friends of God will make one to understand the second illustration, as the learned learn the basic principles of learnings and the bright and pure. The spiritual knowledge of a believer is everlasting as the soul of a believer has got no death. At the time of his death, his knowledge does not go. Hazrat Hasan basari said: Earth cannot eat the place of faith, but it is a means to gain nearness of God. The rank of the fortunate is different according to the degree of Ma'arfat and faith as there is the difference of the rich men is respect of the difference of their riches. So Ma'arfat or knowledge of God is a light without which the believer will not be able to secure divine vision. God says: Their lights will run in their front and their back -57:12.
There is difference in the degrees of light. The Prophet said: If the faith of Abu Bakr is measured with that of the people of the world except the faith of the prophets and apostles, the balance of his faith will be heavier. This like the saying of the man who says: If the lights of all lamps are weighed with the rays of the sun, the rays of the son will be heavier. The light of the faith of the prophets and apostles is like the rays of -the sun, the light of the Siddiqs is like that of the moon, the light of the friends of God is like that of the stars and the light of the general believers is like that of a lamp. The rays of the sun illumine the whole world and the light of the lamp gives light to a room. Similarly there is difference in the case of expansion of breasts of the prophets and ordinary believers. For this reason, there is in Hadis that on the Resurrection Day it will be said that whoever has got faith in his heart to the weight of an atom will be taken out of Hell. God said: You will be victorious if you are believers -3:38.
In this verge, superiority of the believers over the Muslims has been spoken of. Here the believer means the believer with great spiritual knowledge and not Muslims with outward faith. God says: God will raise those in rank who are believers among you and who have been given knowledge-58:12. Here those who
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have got blind faith have been spoken of and then those believers who are learned have been mentioned. God says: Those who have been given learning have got ranks. Hazrat Ibn Abbas explained this verse by saying: God will keep the learned believers over the ordinary believers by seven hundred degrees above, the distance between every two degrees is as the distance between heaven and earth. The Prophet said: Majority of the inmates of Paradise are simple, but the wise will live in the highest Paradise. The Prophet said: The superiority of a learned man over a worshiper is like mine over an ordinary man among my followers, in another narration as the superiority of the full moon over the stars. It can be understood from the above that the difference of the ranks of the inmates of Paradise will be according to the difference of their souls in divine knowledge.

Proof of Shariat about correctness of the ways of the Sufis in gaining spiritual knowledge.

ILHAM AND KASHF: If anything is disclosed to anybody by Ilham or inspiration from unknown source, he is termed Sufi or an ascetic with knowledge of God by the help of correct means. Owing to constant engagement in divine service, spiritual knowledge, is disclosed in soul by way of ilham or inspiration or Kashf. The Prophet said : God gives one who acts up to his learning such knowledge which was unknown to him before. He gives him Taufiq or grace in his actions, till Paradise becomes sure for him. He who does not act up to his learning roams round his learning. God does not give him grace in what he acts till Hell becomes sure for him. God says: God makes out a way for a man who fears Him and gives him provision from a source he cannot conceive. This means that God takes him out from doubts and various difficulties and gives him knowledge without education and natural understanding without experience. God says : 0 those who believe, if you fear God, He will give you Furqan-. Furqan means light with which truth and falsehood are distinguished and with. the help of which one can come out of doubt. The Prophet used to pray: 0 God, give me light, increase my light, give me light in my soul, give me light in my grave, give me light in my hearing, give me light in my sight. Even he used to pray :. Give me light in my hairs, my flesh, my blood and my bones. When asked about the meaning of the following verseHe is upon the light of God whose heart God has opened for
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Islam-29 : 22), the Prophet said : It is diffusion of light, when light falls in soul, heart expands and spreads. The Prophet prayed for Ibn Abbas : 0 God, give him knowledge of religion and of interpretation. Hazrat Ali said : There is nothing which the Prophet concealed from us.' God gives the knowledge of the Quran to some of His servants. It is not acquired knowledge.
God says: He gives wisdom to whom He likes-12:229. This knowledge is said to be that of God's Book. God says: I gave Solomon its knowledge-21 : 79. He specialised Solomon with knowledge. Hazrat Abu Darda'a said: A believer is he who by the help of God's light sees everything from behind the screen. By God. it is true that God casts truth in soul and for that it is disclosed in his tongue. An ancient sage said : Fear the sight of a believer as he looks only by the help of divine light. The clue is found in the following verse : In it there are signs for those who enquire. God says : I make clear the signs to a people with certain faith-12: 118. The Prophet said: 'Learning is of two kinds-one kind of learning lies concealed in soul and it is the benefiting learning.' One learned man was asked about this and he said That is a secret matter out of the secret matters of God. God casts it in the souls of His dear servants Angels or ordinary men do not get clue to it. The learned man is he who learns from his God. This is knowledge from the Almighty called Ilhame Laduni (secret knowledge). God says: I have taught him learning from Myself-18 : 65. Some knowledge comes from God and some knowledge is acquired through the medium of men. It cannot be called secret knowledge which is such a knowledge which arises from the deep bottom of soul without any reason. The Quran and Hadis support it' The following are some examples of Ilme Laduni or secret knowledge.
(1) Hazrat Abu Bakr at the time of his death said to Hazrat Ayesha : They are both your brother and sister.
At that time, his wife was pregnant and she gave birth thereafter to a daughter. He came to know beforehand that he would have a daughter born to him.
(2) One day Hazrat Omar said at the time of his sermon : 0 army, towards the hillock, towards the hillock. When he came to know by Kashf or secret knowledge that the enemies were about to kill the Muslim soldiers, he cautioned them and called them to
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assemble in the hillock. It is wonderful that the call soon reached the Muslim soldiers.
(3) Hazrat Anas said : I started to meet Hazrat Osman. On the way I met a woman and began to think of here uncommon beauty. When I came to Hazrat Osman, he said : Someone of you has come to me with open sign of fornication in his eyes. Don't you know that look at a strange woman is fornication? Repent or otherwise I shall give you punishment. I said : Does revelation come even after the Prophet of God. Hazrat Osman said: Revelation does not come, but by deep insight everything can be seen.
There are many instance that the sages and saints could tell the inner thoughts of men. Two wonderful events are admitted and cannot be denied by anybody. They are-(1) true dream and (2) Hadis of the Prophet regarding future events.
(1) True dream. It reveals the unseen events. When it is possible in dream, it does not become impossible in wakeful state for the following reasons. In sleep, actions of the outward senses remain closed and suspended and soul remains free from the engagements of the material world and then the door of the knowledge of soul remains a little open towards the spiritual world. This occurs sometimes in wakeful state. There are many men who don't hear and see even in wakeful state as they are then remain immerged in their thoughts.
(2) Prophecies of Prophet. With regard to the prophecies of the Holy Prophet concerning future events, there are proofs in the Quran. A prophet is he who remains busy for the Quran. A prophet and to whom the real nature of everything is disclosed. A friend of God is he who does not remain busy in the affairs of the people but it is possible for him to know the real nature of things. There are two gates of soul. He who believes in the prophets and in true dreams must believe that there are two gates of soul, one gate is opened to the external senses and another to the spiritual world from the deepest recess of soul and that is Ilham or blowing of Ruh or inspiration or revelation. Between these two gates, the roaming of soul discloses its real nature. As spiritual matters are disclosed in dream, they are disclosed similarly to the prophets and friends of God in different forms. It cannot be understood without spiritual knowledge.
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Many angels are ignorant of human mind. A man of Kashf said : An angel came to me and asked me : Disclose to me your insight of Tauhid and secret Zikr or remembrance of God, as I don't write anything of these matters. I asked him : Don't you write compulsory duties? He said : Yes, we write them. It appears from this that Keraman Ketebinor the honoured scribes do not know of secret things and they look only to the outward actions. An Aref or agnostic said : I asked a certain Badl (saint) about direct sight of certain faith. He asked the angels on the right side, left side and breast. They all said : We don't know. Then he gave a wonderful reply which pleased me. He said : I asked my soul (conscience) and it gave me the reply. The soul is more intelligent than the angels. The Prophet also said : There are true news-givers among my followers and Omar is one of them. There is in Hadis Qudsi; God says. He whose news of soul I take, holds My remembrance firm in his soul, I take his charge and become his friend, admonishner and companion. Hazrat Abu Solaiman Darani said : Soul is like a closed tent of which all the gates have been shut up. One look at the door which is opened up towards him. One door out of the doors of soul is opened towards the spiritual world and the Almighty God. That is opened by God fear, abstinence from worldly lusts, greed and efforts. For this reason, Hazrat Omar gave orders to his commanders to remember what the religious persons say, as true matters are disclosed to them. A certain wise man said : God's hand is placed on the wise. They don't say except what God discloses to them. Another sage said. If you are wise, I shall tell you that God discloses some of His secrets to the God fearing men.

DEVIL'S WHISPERINGS IN SOUL: As already stated, soul is a closed tent which has got several doors and from every door, its condition is infused to it. Or soul is like a building to which arrows are thrown from every direction. Or soul is like a preserved mirror in which different pictures are thrown and pictures after pictures are falling in it. Or soul is like a well which as got connection with pipes through which water falls in it. The five senses are its open pipes, and its secret pipes are a man's character and conduct made up of greed, anger etc. Whatever is gained by its five senses falls in soul. When sexual passion rises high on account of over-eating and over-drinking, its effect falls in soul. The soul changes from one condition to another. This effect in soul is called khawater and out of it there grows will and
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then intention. Thoughts are good or bad. Good thoughts are called Ilham or inspiration and bad thoughts are called Waswasa or whisperings of the devil.
DEVIL AND ANGEL: They have got generators. The cause or urge which calls towards good is called angel and the cause which calls towards bad is called devil. Latifa or essence gives help to soul in receiving Ilham and this help is called Taufiq or grace. The thing which is accepted from Waswasa or contrivance of the devil is called misguiance. The action of an angel is to give impetus to good actions, to disclose truth and to order is to order for evils and indecencies. Thus God created two opposite agencies. He says: I have created two kinds of everything-13:3. Except God, all things are opposed to one another. God is One and unique who created different things. So soul lives in dispute between angel and devil. The Prophet said : There are two impulses in soul, one impulse of angel which calls towards good and confirms truth. He who feels this impulse should know that it is from God. Another impulse comes from the enemy which leads to doubt and holds out the truth as falsehood and prohibits good works. He who feels this should seek refuge to God from the accursed devil. Then he recited the verse : The devil shows you fears of poverty and enjoins you to do evils-2: 268.
Hazrat Hasan Basari said : Two thoughts roam over soul-one thought from God and another from the devil. God shows mercy on a servant who stops at the time of the latter thought. If soul follows low desires and passions, the devil gets upperhand. If it follows the habits of angels, it becomes the resting place of angels. For this reason, the Prophet said : There is nobody among you in whom there is no devil. The companions asked : 0 Messenger of God, does it reside in you too? He said : There is also devil in me, but God helped me to overcome it and it has become submissive to me. It does not order me but good.
The devil works havoc through the medium of sexual passion. Who so follows it finds the devil as his guide. When he returns to Zikr, the devil goes behind and the angel gives incentive to good works. In the battle-field of soul, there is constant clash between the soldiers of the devil and angels till it gets upperhand. After victory, soul remains in peace and the devil becomes submissive. The sage Ata-b-Ziyad said, : The devil enters a soul as a thief enters a house. If there is anything in the
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house, the thief takes it away. If there is nothing in the house, the thief leaves it. In other words, the devil does not enter a soul which is free from sexual passion and evil desires. God says to the devil : You have got no control over My servants' 16: 32. He who follows the dictates of passion is a slave of passion and not of God. For this reason, He gave control of the devil over him. God says: Have you seen one who has taken up his passion as hid deity-25: 44 ? One day Hazrat Amr-b-A's asked the Prophet : 0 Messenger of God, the devil enters in o my Quran- reading in prayer. He said : He is a devil called Khanzab. When you feel it, seek refuge to God and spit thrice to your left side. He said that God relieved him from it after he did it. There is in another Hadis that there is a devil in ablution called Walhan. He said : Seek refuge from him to God. God says : Seek refuge from the machinations of the devil-16:98. Hazrat Mujahid said by explanation of this verse that it is a broad sign in soul. When one remembers God, the devil flees away disappointed. When he is heedless, the devil takes seat in his soul. God's Zikr and devil's contrivance are like light and darkness which can not live together. The Prophet said: The devil places his trunk in the soul of man. When he remembers God, he goes away, and when he is heedless, he catches hold of his soul.

The Prophet said : When a man does not turn after he reaches his fortieth year, the devil rubs his face with his hands and says. I have wiped the face of one who has got no salvation. The Prophet said : The devil moves in man like the circulation of blood. Make his circulation narrow by hunger. The reason is that hunger cures sexual passion which is the weapon of the devil. So sexual passion surrounds soul. God mentioned the case of the devil saying: The devil said : I will keep sitting in Thy straight path for them. Then I shall run to them by their front, by their back, by their right side and by their left side-7:17.

The Prophet said : The devil keeps sitting in different paths for man. He sits in the path of Islam and says: Will you accept Islam after giving up your religion and the religion of your ancestors ? When he disobeys him and accepts Islam, he sits for him-in the path of emigration and says : Will you leave your country after leaving your native land and your properties. When he disobeys him and makes arguments, he sits in the path of Jihad and says : Will you fight ruining yourself and your properties ? He disobeys him and
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fights. The Prophet said : If a man dies after performing the above actions, it becomes the duty of God to admit him in Paradise.
Some may ask; What is devil ? Has he got body? If he has got body, how can be enter into the soul of a man? These are useless talks. He who raises such arguments is like the man who, instead of removing a snake from his cloth, argues as to the shape, form, length and breadth of the snake. This is sheer foolishness. When you know that evil thoughts arise in your mind and that they lead you to ruin, it is then clear that they are your enemies of whom you should take care. God says: The devil is your open enemy. 35:6. God says: Have I not told you : Don't follow the devil as he is your great enemy-36: 61? So everybody should take care of him and not ask about his birth death and other particulars.
THREE KINDS OF THOUGHT: (1) Bad thoughts lead to evils, (2) good thoughts lead to good and it is called Ilham and (3) thoughts mixed with good and bad lead to doubt and it is not known whether they come from angels or devils. The devil cannot call majority of the pious men towards evil deeds. He presents doubt to them in the form of good and that is a great deception which destroys many people. For instance, he advises a learned man to make sermons, and to adorn his lectures with ornamental words. His objects is to throw him to a show of deeds and to generate in his mind greed for name and fame. He is then included among those men about whom the Prophet said : God will help this religion with such men who will have no share in religion. There is in another Hadis that God will help the religion by a transgressor.
DECEPTION OF DEVIL: It has been narrated that the devil once came to Jesus and told him: Say: there is no deity but God. He said : This is a true word, but I will not utter it in obedience to your dictation. Every man should know the source of thought, whether it comes from the angel or from the devil. He should examine it by deep insight and not by dictates of passion and low .desires. It will not be disclosed to him except by the light of God-fear and deep knowledge. God says : When a party of devil attack the God-fearing, they remember God-7 : 201. In other words, they return to the light of knowledge.
The means of saving oneself from the machinations of the devil is to shut up the doors of thoughts which are the five senses,
Vol-III The Book of Destructive evils 35
secret sexual passion and worldly connections. The doors of five senses are shut up if he stays alone in a dark room. The secret door of the devil is shut up if he lives separate from his family members and his properties. In this way, the door of ideas remains open in soul. It will not be closed if the soul is not kept engaged in the remembrance of God. Even the devil tries to make him forgetful of it. This fight continues till his death. So long as he lives, he does not get released from the devil. The door of passion, hatred and greed remains open towards the soul.

One day a man asked Hasan Basari : 0 Abu Sayeed, does the devil sleep ? He smiled and said : If he slept, we would have taken rest. No believer is safe from him. It is true that there are means to get out of him and to curb his power. The Prophet said : A believer drives out his devil as one of you drives his camel in journey. Hazrat Ibn Masud said : The devil of a believer is lean and thin. It is true that there are many doors open for the devil towards soul, but the door of angels is only one which is mixed up with the other doors. To know the path is very difficult without the rays of soul or deep insight which is covered with God-fear.
Hazrat Abdullah-b-Masud said: The Prophet drew up a line in our front and said : This is God's path. He drew up several lines from the right and left sides of that line and said : These are different paths and in each path the devil calls towards it. Then he recited : This is My straight path. Follow it and don't follow different paths. The Prophet said : There was a hermit among the children of Isrial. Once the devil snared a woman and he generated in the minds of her family members that her cure is in the hands of the hermit. They took the woman to the hermit and wanted him to keep her, but he declined to keep her. Being greatly requested, he kept the woman with him for treatment. Then the devil came to the hermit and gave him evil advice. The hermit then cohabited with the woman who become pregnant as a result. Now the devil came to the hermit again and said to him Kill her, otherwise her family members would come and kill you. If they ask you, you will say that she has died. Then the hermit killed the woman and buried her. The devil then came to the family members of the woman and told them that the hermit killed her as the woman became pregnant owing to his cohabitation with her. When they came to the hermit for the
36 Soul and its Attributes Vol-III

woman, he said that shehad died. Then the devil came to the hermit and said to him : I will save you from them if you obey my command. Prostrate before me twice. When the hermit made prostration before the devil, the devil said : lam now free from you.
DEVIL'S ENTRY INTO SOUL: Know, dear readers, that soul is like a fortress and the devil wishes to enter it and commit havoc. In order to save it from the devil, one must guard the doors of this fort. It is impossible for him to guard them unless he knows the doors which mean his character and conduct.
(1) Anger and sexual passion. A great door for devil's entry is anger and sexual passion. When intelligence is weak, the forces of the devil attack it. Whenever any man gets angry, the devil plays with him. It has been narrated that once the devil came to Moses and said: 0 Moses, God selected you for prophethood and He talked much with you. I have committed sin and I wish to make repentance. Intercede to my Lord that He may forgive my sins Moses said : Well, I am doing it. He ascended the hill, talked with God and wished to getdown from it. Then he said : Fulfill the promise. Moses said: 0 Lord,your servant Iblis wishes that his repentance be accepted. God then revealed to Moses : 0 Moses, your need has been fulfilled. Tell the devil to prostrate before the grave of Adam and make repentance. Then Moses told it to the devil. He got angry at it and said : I did not prostrate before him while he was alive. Shall I now do it after his death ? I have got some duty to you as you have interceded to God for me, One should remember me at the time of three things and I shall not do him any harm-(1) When he gets angry, he should remember that my life is with his soul, my eyes are with his eyes and I move within him like the circulation of blood. (2) When one joins a fight, he should remember that I come down at that time and I remind him of his wives, children and properties, as a result he flees away. (3) One shall not sit by such a woman who can be married. I stay with her as his messenger. I don't stop till I make him fall in danger. From this story, it appears how dangerous are anger and sexual passion.
A certain friend of God asked the devil : Tell me how son hold control over a man. He said : I hold control over him at the time of his anger. Once the devil went to a hermit who asked him which conduct of ,a man is more helpful to him. The devil said: Haughty temper, because when a man has haughty temper, I overturn him as a boy overturns his toy.
VoIrIil The Book of Destructive evils 37
,(2) Hatred and greed. Another great door of the devil to enter soul is hatred and greed. When a man has got greed for anything, it makes him deaf and blind, as the Prophet said : Your love for anything makes you deaf and blind. It has been narrated that at the time when the Prophet Noah embarked on the boat, he took a pair of everything in it by God's command He found an old man in the boat and asked him: Why have you come? He said : I have come to throw the hearts of your companions into fear, so that their hearts may remain with me and their bodies with you. Noah said : 0 enemy of God, go out as you are cursed. Then the old man (devil) said to him : I will destroy people with five things and I will not disclose to you two things. God revealed to Noah : You have got no necessity of these things Tell him to disclose to you the two things. Noah informed the devil accordingly. The devil said : The two things are greed and hatred. I have been cursed for hatred. I generated greed in Adam and misguided him.
(3) Eating with satisfaction. Another door of the devil is eating to one's heart content though the food is lawful and pure, as it makes sexual passion strong. Once the devil came to the Prophet Ihya who saw his body stout and strong and asked him: G Iblis' what is the reason that you have got a strong body? He replied : The reason is sexual passion. He asked : Have I got anything of it? The devil said : Sometimes you eat' with satisfaction and as a result you feel heaviness to pray and (hake Zikr. Then he said : Have I got anything besides this ? The devil said : You have got nothing else. Prophet Ihya said : I shall never eat to my heart's content. Iblis said : By God, I shall no more give any advice to any Muslim.
HARMS OF EATING WITH SATISFACTION. Eating with satisfaction creates six harms: (1) God-fear goes out of the heart of such a man, (2) kindness for the people goes out of his heart, (3) he feels difficulty in doing divine service, (4) he does not feel humility when he hears words of wisdom, (5) when he gives sermon, it does not enter into the hearts of the audience and (6) many diseases grow in him.
(4) Love for fine things Another door of the devil is love for fine dresses, houses and furnitures. When a man loves fine dresses, he loves to embellish his house and decorate it with fine and beautiful furnitures and things. He loves also to paint his building with variegated colours and its roofs and walls.
38 Soul and its Attributes Vol-III
(5) Dependence on people. Another door of the devil is dependence on the people and to cherish hope to get their favours. For that, he assumes show and artificial methods. Thus greed becomes his deity.

(6) Hastiness and absence of steadiness. Hastiness in action and to give up firmness in actions are another door of the devil. The Prophet said : Hastiness comes from the devil and delay comes from God, God says : Man has been created with Hastiness-21: 37Q. man loves hastiness. God said to His Prophet: Don'tbe hasty in the matter of the Quran till its revelation does not become complete on you. It has been narrated that when Jesus Christ was born, the followers of Iblis came to him and said : The heads of all idols have fallen down. The devil said : It seems that some event has taken place. Iblis said that Jesus Christ was born and the angels kept him surrounded. He said to his followers : A Prophet is born in the world. without my knowledge, no woman conceived and gave birth to a child. This is an exception. He praised man for hastiness and fickle-mindedness.

(7) To possess wealth beyond necessity. Another great door of the devil is to have wealth and properties beyond one's necessity. He who has got the bare necessary things lives in peace but :f one possesses surplus wealth, he can not enjoy peace as he wants more and more. When the Prophet was born, the followers of the devil became displeased but the devil said : Give them some time Perhaps God will give them wealth and for that we shall gain upperhand over them. It has been narrated that Jesus Christ once used a piece of stone as pillow. The devil then came to him and said : You have got greed for wealth as you are taking rest on a stone. Then Jesus Christ threw the stone at the devil saying : This is your reward Now think of the man who has got pillows for enjoyment.

(8) Miserliness and fear of poverty. Another great door of the devil is miserliness and fear of poverty, as they prevent charity and expense, encourage hoarding and create greed for wealth. Khaisamah-b-Abdur Rahman said : The devil says : Man will hold control over me, but he will not be able to prevail over me in three matters-(1) misappropriation of money unjustly, (2) spending it unjustly (3) and not to pay the dues of others. Hazrat Sufyan Saori said : There is no weapon stronger to the devil than fear of poverty.
Vol-I11 The Book of Destructive evils 39
(9)Staying in hats and bazars. The devil lives in hats and bazars. The Prophet said : When the devil came down to the earth, he said: 0 Lord, give me -place for habitation. God said : I give you bath room for habitation. The devil said : Give me place for assembly. God said : For that I give you hats and bazars and centres of pathways. The devil said : Give me food. God said You are given food over which God's came is not taken. The devil said : Give me drink. God said : I give you drink which produces intoxication. The devil said : Give me an inviter. God said : I give you instruments of song. The devil said : Give me a Quran. God said : I give you poetry. The devil said : Give me a book, God said : I give you pictures of animals. The devil said give me Hadis. God said : I gives you false talk. The devil said Give me a game. God said: I give you women.

(10) Love for sect and hatred for opponents. Another door of the devil is love for mezhab or sect or party and hatred for those who oppose and hold him in contempt. These are such faults for which the religious men are ruined, because to disclose the faults of others is the lastly conduct of man. Those who follow their own sect or party think that it is the best and they cherish hatred for other sects or parties. Some of them support Hazrat abu Bakr though they do not follow him, speak falsehood and create disturbance Had Hazrat Abu Bakr seen them he would have been their first enemy. Some of them support Hazrat Ali but do not follow his character and conduct. At the time of his Caliphate, he purchased a shirt for only three dirhams and cut off his trouser up to ankles. Now his supporters wear silk dresses and eat unlawful earnings. On the Resurrection Day, he will be their first enemy. Those who love Imams Abu Hanifah, Shafeyi, Malek and Ahmad should remember the above principle.

(11) Ordinary men leaders of religion. One of the great doors of the devil is that those who have got no learning an education and who do not ponder over the mysteries of creation and actions of God claim to be the leaders of religion. They entertain doubt in the basic principles of religion. The Prophet said : The devil comes to one of you and says : Who created God? When anyone feels that, he should say : I believe in God and His Prophet. This utterance will remove that feeling from him. The Prophet did not recommend argument on the above line as the learned do not face it except the ordinary men.
40 Soul and its Attributes Vol-III
(12) Bad opinion about Muslims. One of the great doors of the devil is bad ideas and opinions about Muslims, God said : 0 those who believe, give up many conjectures as some conjecture is sin. 49 :12. The devil gives encouragement to backbite one about whom a bad ideal is entertained. The Prophet said : Save yourself from the place of calumny. Even the Prophet saved himself from it. Once the Prophet was in a state of I,tigaf or seclusion in a mosque. At that time, his wife Sufiyah came to him and went away in the evening. At that time two Ansars came there and after saluting him were about to depart. The Prophet said to them that his wife Sufiyah had come and gone away. He said : The devil runs through the body of a man like circulation of blood. I fear he may enter in you. So to save oneself from the calumny of others is the bounden duty on all.
These are the twelve great doors of the devil through which he enters into the hearts of men and commit tremendous havoc and ruin.
MEANS TO DRIVE OUT THE DEVIL: The means to shut up the doors to prevent the entry of the devil into human soul or heart is by purification of soul from the evil attributes. The devil is like a hungry dog which shall come to you. Drive it out repeatedly. If you, cannot drive a dog take a place of meat and throw it to it and it will go away. Similarly the soul which is free from the food of the devil can be filled up with constant Zikr or remembrance of God, but when passion and greed are strong in soul, the spirit of Zikr roams round the soul. When the soul is heedless of Zikr, machinations of the devil come in. Hazrat Abu Hurairah reported: Once the devil of a believer and the devil of a polytheist met with each other. The devil of the polytheist was stout and strong and dressed with fine dresses and the devil of the believer was lean and thin, disheveled in hairs and laden with dust. The former said to the latter: Why are you lean and thin? He said: I remain with such a man that when he eats, he remembers God and I become hungry, when he drinks and remembers God, I become thirsty. When he puts on dress and remembers God, I go without cloth. When he uses oil and remembers God, I become disheveled in hairs. The devil of the unbeliever said: I remain with such a person who does not remember God in any case and I become his partner in eating, drinking and dresses.
Hazrat Abdur Rahman-b-Abi Laila reported: The devil with a torch light of fire in hand came to the Prophet who was then
Vol-III The Book of Destructive evils 41
engaged in prayer. Gabriel at once came to him and said: Recite the following:
'I seek refuge to Thee with the perfect words which no religious or irreligious man misses, from the evil which enters the world and which comes out of it, which comes down from heaven and which ascends to it, from the trials of day and night, from what roams about during the day and night except what travels with good, 0 Merciful.' When the Prophet recited it, the torch of fire fell on the body of the devil.
Hazrat Hasan Basari said: I have come to know that Gabriel once came to the Prophet and said: One party of Jinn is making conspiracy against you. So when you enter the evening, read Ayatul Qursi (2: 255). The Prophet said: Once the devil came to me and quarrelled with me, I caught hold of his neck. By One who sent me as a true messenger, I did not let him go till his saliva of tongue touched my hand. Had not my brother Soloman called me, he would have remained lying down in the mosque. The Prophet said: 'The devil does not walk in a route which is used by Omar.' The cause is that his soul was free from greed. So remove it by sincere Zikr. Be like one who takes medicine after purgation of his bowels which was full of indigested food stuffs. If you want to get the benefit of medicine, first purge your bowels and clear it from congested stools. Similarly clear your soul first from passion and greed and when take the medicine of Zikr. When Zikr enters such a heart which is free from thoughts other than of God, the devil flees away from it, as disease goes away if medicine falls in stomach free of food.
It has been recorded in case of the devil that he will misguide one on whom he has got control and lead him to the endless pit of fire. God-fear and God's remembrance remove the devil. Prayer makes the soul pure. By its help, virtues and faults of soul are disclosed. The prayer of a man whose soul is filled up with passion and greed is not accepted. So it is beyond doubt that the devil will not go from you in that case and his machinations in you will increase, as to use medicine before purgation causes more harm. If you want to be free from the devil, proceed to fill up your soul by God-fear. Then apply the medicine of Zikr. Then the devil will flee away from you as he fled from Hazrat Omar. Hazrat Wahab-b-Monabbah said: Fear God. A certain sage said: Wonder is for one who does not follow the good deeds after
42 Soul and its Attributes Vol-III
knowing them and follows the devil knowing his transgression. God says: Invoke Me and I will respond to you. You call Him but He does not respond to you. You are making Zikr but the devil does not flee away from you. The reason is that you have lost the condition of Zikr and invocation.
CAUSE OF INVOCATION NOT BEING ACCEPTED: Hazrat Ibrahim-b-Adham was asked: What is the matter with us that we invoke but our invocation is not accepted, although God says: Invoke me and I will accept your invocation-2 :186? He said: The cause is that your hearts have died. He was asked: What thing has caused their death? He said: Eight conducts bring the death of heart. (1) You know the duties towards God but you do not do them. (2) You recite the Quran but you do not look to its promise of punishment. (3) You say that you love the Prophet but you do not follow his actions. (4) You say that you fear death but you do not become prepared for it. (5) God says: The devil is your enemy but you take his help in sinful acts. (6) You say that you fear Hell-fire but you keep your body immerged in it. (7) You say that you love Paradise but you do not act for it. (8) When you get up from bed, you throw your sins by your back and disclose the sins of the people, thereby you cause the displeasure of your Lord. How can He respond to your invocation?
Is devil one or many? This knowledge is not necessary for actions. One devil is fixed for a sin and he is called towards it. The Prophet said: Khanjab is the name of the devil in ablution. So the number of devils are many. So also is the number of angels. Every angel is entrusted with an action. The Prophet said: For each believer, 160 angels have been fixed. They remove from him what he can not himself remove. Seven angels have been engaged for eyes only. They remove the injurious things from eyes just as flies are driven out from a pot of honey. If any man is entrusted to himself for the trinkling of an eye, the party of devil would have lifted him away.
It has been reported that when Hazrat Adam was sent down to the earth, he said: 0 Lord, They have created enmity between me and the devil. If you do not keep me against him. I will have no strength to fight against him. He said: No child will be born to one which will not have an angel with him. Hazrat Adam said: 0 Lord, give me further sermon. God said: I shall give one punishment for one sin, but I shall give ten rewards for one virtue and more. Iblis said: 0 Lord, I shall have no strength to fight
Vol-III The Book of Destructive evils 43
against a man whom Thou hast honoured. God said: A child will be born to you along with the birth of a child. The devil said: Give me more power. God said: Your riding armies and infantry will gather together against him and you will be cosharers in their children and in their wealth.
THREE KINDS OF JINN: The Prophet said: God created three kinds of Jinn. One kind of Jinn are serpents, scorpions and worms of earth. Another kind of Jinn roam in sky like air. For another kind of Jinn, there are rewards and punishments.
THREE KINDS OF MEN: God created three kinds of men. One kind of man are like a beasts. God says about this kind of men: They have got hearts with which they do not understand. They have got eyes with which they do not see. They have got ears with which they do not hear. They are like beasts, nay they are more misguided -17 : 179. Another kind of men have got bodies of men but their hearts are like the hearts of the devil. Another kind of men will remain within the shade of God on the day on which there will be no shade except that of God.
FIGURES OF DEVILS AND ANGELS: The devils and angels have got figures which cannot be seen by men except with the light of prophethood. The Prophet saw Gabriel twice in his form. It took place when the Prophet wanted to see his actual figure. Once he saw him in the cave of Hira covering the space between east and west and at another time near Sitratul Muntaha or farthest lot tree in the night of his ascension to heaven. At other times, he saw him in the form of a man.
EVIL THOUGHTS OF MIND: Machinations of the devil are very subtle. The Prophet said: God will forgive the thoughts of man which arise in mind till he does not disclose them in words or translate them into action. He also said: God says to the angels Keraman Katebin: Don't write when one of My servants intends to commit a sin except when he does it. When he wishes to do a good deed and translates it into action, write for him ten merits therefor. It appears from above that intention to commit a sin is forgiven. On the contrary, if one intends to do good without translating it into action, merits upto seven hundred times are written for him. There is in another Hadis: God says: I forgive one who intends to commit a sin without translating it into action. God says: God will take into account what crosses your mind

44 Soul and its Attributes Vol-III
whether you disclose it or keep secret. Then He will forgive whom He wishes and punish whom He wishes-2:284.
God say: Don't be busy in what you have no knowledge-17 36. Similarly, eyes, ears and heart of everyone will be asked. It appears from this that actions of mind will be taken into account and ordinarily they will not be forgiven. God says: God will not punish you for useless talks in your oath, but He will punish you for what your hearts have earned. So there are conflicting views whether a man will be punished for thoughts of mind or not. The solution to us is as follows. ,
Four Stages Of Thoughts: There are four stages for the formation of a thought in order. First, rise of a thought in mind, then Inclination of passion, then order of mind and then will and determination. These four stages of a thought come in order. For Instance, a woman walks behind a man. It occurs in the mind of the man after seeing the woman that she is walking behind him. This is the sudden rise of thought in his mind. Next he thinks that he should see her again by turning his look at the back. This is the second stage called inclination of mind arising out of first thought. In the third stage, mind gives order to translate this inclination into action and as a result he turns his look towards the woman. Between the second and third stages, there are hurdles like shame or fear. Out of fear or shame, he may not look back. In the fourth stage, there is will and determination to see the woman. It is will with action.
PUNISHMENT: There is no punishment in the first stage as man has got no control in sudden rise of thought in mind. In the second stage also, there is no punishment for the above reason. The Prophet said regarding the above two stages: The thought that naturally arises in the minds of my followers is pardonable. Once Hazrat Osman-b-Mazun asked the Prophet: 0 Messenger of God, my nature dictates to me to divorce Khaola. He said: Make delay, marriage is my way. He again said: My nature wants me to be important. The Prophet said: Fasting among my followers works like importancy. He said again: My nature wants me to be a hermit. The Prophet said: Stop, Jihad and Haj and asceticism of my followers. He said: My nature wants me to give up meat. The Prophet said: Stop, I love it. There was no will and determination to do these things. For this reason, the Prophet advised mutual consultation before determining a thing.
Vol-Ill , The Book of Destructive evils 45
In the third stage, mind considers whether the previous thought should be translated into action. This condition of mind is situated within willingness or unwillingess. What is subject to one's willingness shall meet with punishment and what is not subject to it shall receive no punishment. In the fourth stage, there is determination to translate the evil thought into action for which there is punishment. But if it is not acted upon, then there is room for doubt whether it will be punished or not. If he fears God and does not do it after repentance, he will get a virtue even though his evil intention is a sin, but to refrain from it out of fear of God is a virtue. He who wills at night that in the morning he will kill a Muslim or commit fornication with a woman and if be dies in that night he will die upon that will and he will be raised up upon that condition. The Prophet said: When two men face each other with their arms, the killer and the killed will both go to Hell. He was asked: 0 Messenger of God, we understand it in the case of a killer. But why will the killed go to Hell? The Prophet said: The reason is that he intended to kill his companion.

So God will punish for will and intention. Pride, self-praise, show, hypocrisy, hatred and other evil thoughts of mind will surely meet with punishment. Soul is the root and so it is fit for punishment. The Prophet said: God-fear is here, pointing out to the heart or soul. God says: God does not accept blood and meat of a sacrificed animal but He accepts from you God-fear. The Prophet said: The thing which irritates is sin. He said: What gives consolation in mind is virtue though it gives you decision. If a man finds a woman in his bed in darkness and thinks that she is his wife and as such cohabits with her, he commits no sin, but if he cohabits with his wife thinking that she is a strange woman, he commits sin. So every action is not an action of the
organs, but an action of the mind.

CONSTANT CHANGE OF MIND: Effect on mind comes from different sources. Mind is a target to which arrows are shot. When anything falling in mind creates some effect, the opposite thing changes that effect. If the devil calls towards passion, the angel removes it from mind, God says: I change their heart and sights. God created human mind as an wonderful thing. When the Prophet took oath, he sometimes said: No, by oath of the Changer of mind. He often used to say, 0 Changer of mind, keep my mind firm on Thy religion. The companions asked: Do you
46 Soul and its Attributes Vol-III
fear, 0 Prophet of God? He replied: Who will give me assurance when the mind is within the two fingers of the Merciful? He changes it as He likes.

THREE EXAMPLES OF MIND: The Prophet cited three examples of mind. He said: Mind is like a sparrow which He
changes every moment. He said: Mind is like water in a pot when it is made hot in the matter of change. he said: Mind is like a wing in an open field to be turned over and again by wind. Mind is of three kinds from the point of view of virtues, vices and doubtful things. The first kind of mind is made up of God fear nurtured by divine services and free from bad conducts. Therein fall good thoughts from the unseen treasure house of spiritual kingdom. Wisdom leads the good thoughts falling on it to know the subtle affairs and gives clue to the secret matters of fortune. One knows it by the light of insight and commands that there is no alternative but to translate it into action. The sight of angels falls in such mind. He sees it naturally pure, cleansed by God-fear, nurtured by the rays of intellect or polished by the sparkling light of Ma'arfat or divine knowledge. The angels help such a mind. God says: If a man gives charity, fears God and does good deeds, I shall make his path easy-5 : 92. Such a mind is blessed with five virtues gratefulness, patience, God-fear, poverty, asceticism, love, containment, reliance on God, good thoughts and other good qualities and becomes free from vices and evils. God speaks of such a mind: Behold, hearts find consolation by the remembrance of God. In another verse: 0 satisfied soul, return to Thy Lord well-pleased and pleasing Him-89:27.
The second kind of mind is full of passions, low desires and other evils. The doors of the devil remain open towards it and the doors of angels remain shut up against it. Regarding such mind, God says: Have you seen one who takes his passion as his deity? They are like beasts - 25 : 44. It is all the same if you call him towards guidance. He will not hear you.

The third kind of mind is a mixture of good and evil. Sometimes good leads one towards guidance and sometimes evil deeds towards misguidance and error. Intellect helps him in his guidance and misguidance. The forces of the devil and the forces of angels fight in his mind till either of them becomes victorious.

****End of Chapter 1 - Volume 3 *****

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