REVIVAL OF RELIGIOUS LEARNINGS IMAM GHAZZALI'S
IHYA UL UM-ID-DIN
THE BOOK OF WORLDLY USAGES
CHAPTER IX Music and Exctacy 162
MUSIC AND ECSTASY
Heart is the seat of secret wealth and it is the invaluable mine of jewels. There lies in it the most valuable jewel, just as fire lies secretly in stone and iron. It lies hidden in such as way as water lies in the lowest bottom of earth. There is no means of waking it up from sleep without sweet sounds. There is no path of sound entering into heart without the door of ear. The feelings that lie hidden in heart are brought out by sweet, melodions and rhymed sounds. These do not come out of heart without movement as what is in cauldron does not fall without being heated. Melodious song takes out what is hidden in heart and creates a wonderful feeling. When heart is controlled by songs, they take out from it its qualities and guilts. So it is necessary to discuss about songs in the light of the teaching of Islam.
DIFFERENT OPINIONS REGARDING'
We shall discuss now about religious songs and ecstasy that arise spontaneously. As a result of these songs, the organs of the body tremble. Imam Shafeyi, Malek, Abu Hanifa, Sufyan Saori and other learned men used such words regarding sama or religious songs which show that it is unlawful. Imam Shafeyi in his book'Adabue Qaza' said that Sama is Makruh as it resembles void things. He who remains busy in sama songs is a fool and his deposition is not acceptable . Qazi Abu Tayyeb said : To hear sama from such a woman who can be married is not lawful according to the disciples of Imam Shafeyi Imam Shafeyi said that it is Makruh to ring musical instruments by stick and that the Zindings have discovered sama from the Quran in order to divert the attention of the people, Imam Malek prohibited songs. He said: It is your duty to cancel the sale of a female slave who is found after purchase to be a singer. Imam Abu Hanifa said that sama is Makruh and to hear songs is sin. Hazrat Sufiyan Saori, Hammad, Ibrahim Shubi and other learned men of Kufa gave similar opinions. Abu Taleb Makki after quoting the opinion of many learned men said that sama is lawful. He said that Hazrat Abdullah Muwayiah and other companions used to hear sama. He said that on fixed days of blessing, the Meccans used to hear sama. The Medinites also used to hear them. The sage Attar had
two female slaves of melodious sounds. His friends used to hear sama from them. The saints Junaid Bagdadi, Sarri Sakti, Junnun Misri and Hares Mohasabi, Ibne Hasan Askalani used to her sama.
Mumsad Dinawari said : I asked the Prophet in dream : 0 Messenger of God, do you dislike anything of sama ? He said : I don't dislike it, but tell them that they should begin it with a verse of the Quran and finish it with its verse. Taher-b-Bilal saw the Prophet in dream who was sitting in a corner of a mosque with Hazrat Abu Bakr by his side. The latter was reciting poetries and the Prophet was hearing. The Prophet said : This is the truth in exchange of truth. Hazrat Junaid said : In three places, mercy is bestowed on these people, at the time of meal as they do not eat unless hungry, at the time of Zikr as they make Zikr staying upon the high rank of the Truthful and at the time of hearing sama, as they hear it being engrossed with love and see truth with veritable eye.
PROOF THAT SAMA IS LAWFUL
Shariat means the saying and doing of the Prophet and the inference therefrom. These things do not prove that sama or religious songs are unlawful.
Proof of inference from the Prophet's sayings and doings. Gana means songs which includes sama or religious sons. Ordinarily it means sweet sound. Sweet sound is of two kinds-rhythmical sound and simple sound, Rhythmical sounds are of two kinds- understandable like poetry or not understandable like the sounds of animals. Sama means religious songs with sweet voice. It cannot be unmans religious songs with sweet voice. It cannot be unlawful, rather it is lawful according to the traditions.
Rythmless sweet sound. Ear has been created to hear resounding of sweet sounds of sama. Man has a got five organs and intellect and every organ has got a. natural attribute of the sensation of the taste of joy. The natural attribute of eye is to see. It enjoys joy at the sight of beautiful things, such as various kinds of leaves and plants, flowing stream, beautiful face. In one word, all beautiful colours and sceneries are dear to eye. Sight of ugly colour is displeasing to eye. Then nose has been created to take smell. It loves to take sweet scent and fragrance and dislikes bad
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smell and stench of rotten things. Take the case of tongue. It likes sweet and greasy things and dislikes bitter and distasteful foods. Hands like smooth things more than hard and uneven things. Take the case of intellect. It feels comfort in knowledge and dislikes illiteracy and ignorance. Similar is the case of ear. The sound which the ears hears is of two kinds-sweet sounds like the sounds of nightingale and sweet songs and displeasing sounds like the sound of ass. What is true of other organs is true also of ears. Hadis allows hearing of sweet sounds. God says : He increase in creation what This increase is said to mean sweet sound. The Prophet said : God did not send any Prophet without sweet sound. He also said: If a man recites the Quran hears with sweet sound, God hears his recitation more than one hears the songs of his female singer. One hadis praised the Prophet David by saying : David used to sing with so melodious sound that men, jinn, beasts and birds gathered together spell bound to hear it. Nearly four hundred persons expired thus by hearing his songs. The Prophet once praised his companion Abu Musa Ash'ari saying
He has been given the musical instruments of songs of the family of David. God says : The worst of sounds is surely the sound of ass. This verse also praises sweet sound. If sama is held unlawful, then to hear the sound of nightingale is also unlawful. If to hear the sound of nightingale is lawful then will it not be lawful to hear sweet and melodious sounds which have got wisdom and good meanings ?
Sweet sounds with rhythm: There is rhythm in sweet sounds. There are many sweet sounds which have got no rhythm and many sounds with rhythm which have got no sweetness. Rhythmical sweet sounds are of three kinds from the points of the places of utterances. Firstly, it comes out rom material things, such as musical instruments and drums or the sounds of stick-beatings over instruments. Secondly, it comes out from the throats of animals including men, nightingale and other animals. It is naturally sound with rhythm for which it is sweet. The source of the sound with rhythm for which it is sweet. The source of the sound of animal is its throats. Sweet sound has been discovered by following the sweet sounds of animals. There is nothing in God's creation which is not followed by men so how will the sounds, melodious or not melodious, be unlawful for the ears ? Nobody says that the sweet sound of birds are unlawful.
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The sound of an animal with life is not separate from the sound of a lifeless instrument. So to hear the sound of aman in whatever form it comes out of his throat is not unlawful except to hear the sounds of such instruments which Shariat expressly prohibited-Kuba, Majamir and Autar. These are not made unlawful as they emit sweet sounds. If it would have been made unlawful for this reason, all things which man enjoys would have been unlawful . The reason of being unlawful is that they were connected with wine which was made unlawful. These instruments helped the drinking of wine, as to live witlr an unknown woman in a room is unlawful as it helps cohabitation. These instruments also reminded them with wine- drinking.The flute of shepherds, pilgrims drummers which emit sweet sounds are not unlawful as they are not connected with the drunkards. God says : Say, who has prohibited God's beautiful things which He created for His servants and good provisions ? So these sounds with rythm are not unlawful.
Third kind of sama which are easily understood. These are poetries which come out from the throat of men. They are lawful. Words which are easily understood and sweet sounds with rythm are not unlawful when they are separately lawful, they cannot be unlawful when they are united. If there are any objectionable words in them, they are unlawful, weather attended with sweet sounds or not. Imam Shafeyi said : Poetry are words only. The good of them is good and the bad of them is bad. When recitation of poetry without sound and rythm is lawful, then to recite them with sound and rythm is lawful. When poetries were recited before the Prophet, he used to say: There is surely wisdom in poetry. When constructing the mosque of Medina, the Prophet used to hear materials with his other companions and recite poetry. He recited at another time these poetries : 0 God, life is the life of the Hereafter, so betow mercy on Ansars and Muhajirs. The Prophet erected a pulpit within the mosque for the poet Hassan-b- Sabet. He used to stand upon it and recite poetry deprecatingt the unbelievers and praising the Prophet. The Prophet then said : God is helping Hassan with the Holy Spirit till he declares glory on behalf of the Prophet and disputes. Once the poet Nabigah reectied some of his poetries before the Prophet who prayed for him saying : May God not break your teeth. Hazrat Ayesha said that the companion used to recite poetry before the
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Prophet who only smiled. Amr-b-Sharid reported from his father who said : I recited before the Prophet one hundred poetries of Omayya-b-Saltha. Each time he said: Repeat it.
Fourth stage : Sama wakes up the mind. What remans strong in mind is awakened by Sama. I say that sweet song with rythm is secret thing of God for sout. It creats a wonderful feeling in mind. Some sound gives pleasure, some pain, someone brings sleep, some excites passion some moves the organs of the body. Mind becomes such if the rings of songs sound in the innermost recess of the heart. A suckling child often is lulled into sleep or his cries stopped by sweet songs. Camels are so influenced by songs that even heavy load seem light to them. Once a slave was conducting a camel to a distant place. It was heavily loaded. The slave had a melodious sound. The camel was so impressed by his song that it crossed in one day three day's journey. When loads were taken from it, it expried. This shows that the effect of songs in mind is wonderful. For this reason, even birds used to sit on the head of Prophet David on hearing his songs.
IN SEVEN PLACES. SONGS ARE COMMENDABLE
(1) Songs of pilgrims. They roam from one country to another with songs and flutes. These songs are lawful, and they describe poetry relating to Ka'ba, Black, Stone Hatem. Zamzam and other signs. These arouse feelings for visiting the Ka'ba and other holy places.
(2) The warriors should be given impetus to fight against the enemies by songs. It is lawful to call towards bravery and to lay down life for the cause of God.
(3) If two warriors meet in the battle field, what they recite of songs and poetry of bravery is lawful, because they incite them to fight. It is lawful in lawful fights and not unlawful fights.
(4) Songs of mournings. It is of two kinds, commendable and not commendable. It is not commendable to recite songs which increase sorrow for past mishaps, calamities. The Quran says : - lest you do not grieve for what missed you, To express sorrow for the dead falls within this class of songs, as it express dissatisfaction at the order of God.
Mourning-songs are commendable when men express sorrow for past sins For this sin, Adam wept for forgiveness and
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Prophet David's songs were for forgivesness. Owing to his melodious songs, many people expired. This action is praiseworthy and to give encouragement for this is also praiseworthy.
(5) Songs at the time of festivals. It increases joy and happiness at the time of festivals and other days of expressing happiness, for this happens at the time of two I'd marriage festivals, birth ceremony, when a child is born circumcision. When the Prophet returned to Medina after the expedition of Ridwan, the women from the top of the roof were signing.
'Full moon rises above us from Sanniatul Wadayi compulsory on us to express gratefulness to God, Alimighty.' This joy was expressed at the arrival of the Prophet to Medina from the expedition. This is commendable. Hazrat Ayesha reported : I was seeing the sports of the Abyssinian boys standing within the mosque on the day of I'd, The Prophet covered me with his sheet. She was then of immature age. One day Hazrat Ayesha saw that two girls were beating 'Daf' at Mina and the Prophet covered her face with his sheet . When Hazrat Abu Bakr came there, the Prophet removed the sheet from the face of Ayehsa and said: OAbu Bakr, leave her as it is an I'd, day. One day the Prophet asked Ayesha : What are these dolls ? She said : These are my daughter and in the midst to them there is the horse. He asked : What are these two over the horse ? She said: Two wings. The Propheesaid: Two wings of a horse ? Ayesha said : Have you not heard that Solaiman, son of David, had a horse with two wings ? Thereafter the Prophet laughed, so much so that his teeth were visible. Hazrat Ayesha reported : The Prophet one day came to me at the time when two girls were singing near me the songs of Boas battle. He got up and turned her face towards them. Abu Bakr then came and threatened me and said: The instruments of songs before the Prophet ? The Prophet advanced towards Abu Bakr and said : Leave them both. These traditions in Sahih Bukhari and Moslem prove that songs and plays and sports are not unlawful.
(6) Song of the lovers. These increase love towards God and give satisfaction and pleasure to mind. It is also lawful. If the union with a strange girl or woman is unlawful, songs for her 'love is also unlawful.
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(7) Songs on the part of one who seeks the love and pleasure of God and to meet with Him, is lawful. Sama brings out from the recess of his heart the power of sight of different matters and a deep feeling and unspeakable taste which can only be felt and not disclosed. This taste cannot be obtained by any other organ of the body. The condition of intoxication is termed by the Sufis as Wuzd or ecstasy. This appears in mind as an effect of religious songs which did not exist before. The fire of ecstasy arising in mind burns the uncleanliness of mind as fire removes the accumulated refuges on invaluable jewels and diamonds. The result is the shining of mind in which Mushahadah and Mokashafah appear. In other words, his inner eye is opened by which he sees the secrets of nature. This is the goal of the lovers of God and the last stage of their search. He who can reach that stage gains nearness of God. It is possible only by Sama songs. He who is stupid expresses wonder at the taste of ecstasy as an important man express wonder at the pleasure of cohabition or as a boy at the taste of power and fame. How he whose mind is not perfect for feeling can have taste and how he who has got no power of taste can taste ? How can he who has got no power of intellect get the taste of intellect get the taste of intellect ? He who earned the knowledge of recognition of God loves Him beyond doubt : This love deepens in proportion to his knowledge of God. This deep love or the Prophet for God kept him confined in the cave of Hira in deep meditation.
Know, 0 dear readers, that every beauty is dear to the organ of that beauty, God is ever beautiful and He loves beauty. If the beauty is of a material thing, it can be seen by the material eye and if that beauty is of glory ? attributes and good character, it can be appreciated by the organ of mind.-The word beauty has been used practically -to appreciate these attributes. It is therefore said : That man has got beautiful character and conduct. It does not speak of his figure but of his qualities. He is loved for these beautiful attributes as one is loved for his beautiful appearance. If this love is deep, it is called Ishq. Even more wonder is this that a dead man is loved not for this figure but for theinnate qualities he had. Every beauty in the world is a spark of that permanent Beauty of God and a spark of Hislight. So how can he not love Him who is ever beautiful and the prime source of beauty? He who realises it loves Him most, Nothing is compared to the beauty of sun and moon. God is the creator of these beautiful things. So how should He be loved ?
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Love for a created thing has got defects. It is a sign of our ignorance. But one who knows Him with real eye of truth knows of no beauty except the Creator of a beauty. He who knows workmanship as the attribute of a workman does not go to any body except to him. Every thing in the world is the workmanship of God and the sign of His creation. so he realises Him though His creations and realises His attributes and His workmanship, just as one realises the qualities of a writer through his written book. A man of little intellect understands love as physical union or satisfaction of sexual lust.
The Prophet once mentioned of a youngman of Banu Israil. The young man asked his mother from the top of a hillock: Who has created this sky ? The mother replied: The Almighty God. He again asked : Who has created this earth ? The mother replied. The Almighty God. In this way he asked about mountains and clouds and the mother replied as before. He said : Such is the glory of God. Saying this he jumped down from the hillock and soon expired. This is nothing but the ecstasy of love for God who is Alimighty and Great.
SAMA IS UNLAWFUL IN FIVE CASES
(1) To hear sama from a woman whose look excites sexual passion. Beardless boys may also be included in this category if sexual passion is aroused at their sight. This illegality is not for songs but for women and beardless boys.
(2) Instruments of songs of drunkards are unlawful as they remind of unlawful thing and incite unlawful action of wine-drinking and intoxicants. These are Majamir, Autar and Kubah but not Daf, flute and other musical instruments.
(3) Obscene talks in sama are unlawful . If there is any obscene talks in poetry, useless talks and accusations against God, His Prophet and companions, they are unlawful. If there are descriptions of a particular woman and not of women in general, and narrations of the beauties of a particular woman before the people, they are unlawful.
(4) If any evil or immoral desire arises in mind or by hearing songs, it will be unlawful.
(5) If habits is formed for hearing sama, it is unlawful. Excess of any thing is bad. If too much food is taken it is bad for health.
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If too much oil is besmeared on face, it looks ugly. So also if too much sama songs are heard, it forms into a habit which is bad. After strenuous efforts and hard labour. Sama songs and innocent enjoyments are not bad.
Question: From your arguments, it seems that Sama is lawful in some cases and unlawful in some cases. Then why did you say at the beginning thatSama is lawful ?
Answer: In answer to that, know that if a person questions whether honey is lawful or unlawful, I must say at the beginning that honey is lawful but it is unlawful for man of hot temper. If you ask me about wine, I must say in the beginning that it is unlawful, but it is lawful for a man in whose throat a morsel of food has stuck. These are the exemptions and not the general rule. So at the beginning the general rule.has been mentioned by saying that Sama is lawful and wine is unlawful Song are not unlawful for musical sounds but for other measures. Imam Shafeyi does not generally make Sama unlawful. He says that he who takes it as a profession, his evidence is not acceptable. The reason is that song is included within plays and sports and it is connected with useless things. God will not punish for useless things and plays and sports and they are not unlawful. God say God will not punish you for vain talks in your oath. If a oath is taken in the name of God and without being firm on it and without being opposed to Shariat, it is lawful.
Answers to those who say that Sama is unlawful: They recite the verse of the Quran: There are men who sell useless talks. Hazrats Ibn Masud, hasan Basari, Nakhayi and others say that useless talks here mean songs. The Prophet said: God made unlawful the trade of singing slave girls, taking their price and teaching themsongs. The word 'Qaina' or singing slave girl is used here to mean one who sings before the drunkards. We have mentioned before that if there is fear of sin as a result of singing by women, it is unlawful. This is supported by the songs of slave girls in the house of Ayesha in presence of the Prophet. If useless talks are purchased in lieu of religion, it leads to misguidance and for that it is unlawful. This is the meaning of useless talk in the above verse.
(2) Another proof of illegality of Sama is said to Le this verse: Do you wonder and laugh at this talk and don't weep while you
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are singing ? If this verse makes song unlawful , then to laugh and weep also as mentioned in this verse are unlawful. God says
As for poets, the misguided ones follow`them, By this verse, only the infidel poets have been mentioned . It is not understood from this that good poetry has been banned.
(3) Another proof is a Hadis in which the Prophet said : Iblis was the first who sang mourning songs and the first who sang Songs. This does not ban songs as the Prophet David used to sing mourning songs for sins. The Prophet heared this song when he returned from an expedition "The full moon alighted on us from the valley of Saniyyatual Bidayi".
(4) Another proof is a hadis which the Prophet said : If a man raises high his voice a song, God sends for him two devils. They climb upon his shoulders, place their feel on his chest and move them till he stops. This Hadis applies to the bad and obscene songs which we have narrated above and which raise in mind sexual passion.
(5) Another Hadis cited is as follows : Everything with which a man plays is void except his training of his house his throwing of his arrows and playing with his wife. The word 'void' does not mean that everything except the three things are unlawful . It means want of benefit. To hear sweet sons of birds and to make innocent sports and enjoyments are not unlawful.
EFFECT OF SAMA AND ITS RULES
There are three stages of sama songs. (1) The first stage is the understanding of the meaning of Sama songs, (2) the second stage is ecstasy, and (3) the third stage is the movement of bodily limbs as a results limbs as a result of ecstasy.
(1) First stage. It is the understanding of the meaning of Sama songs. There is difference in understanding according to the condition of hearers of songs. (a) the first conditions is the natural state of mind, to hear songs and not to have any taste except the taste of hearing songs this is the lowest stage as birds and beasts take share in this stage (b) The second condition is to appreciate after understanding the meaning of songs and to apply the object of songs to a particular man. The young men fall to this condition as their sexual passion is aroused by these songs,
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(c) The third condition is whatever the hearer hears of songs in relation to God and the change of condition of mind, he applies it to his own condition. At the initial stage the sojourners to the path of God fall to this condition and their only object is to gain knowledge of God. They raise up their inner feelings and the hearer take the meaning of songs according to their own conditions. I am giving some instances here. A certain Sufis heard a man singing-The ambassador says : See me tomorrow,. At once his ecstasy was raised up and he fell down senseless. When he regained his senses, he was asked the reason of his swoon and he said :1 remembered then the saying of the Prophet The inmates of paradise will see their Lord once a week. The sage Raqi-b-Daraj said : Ibn Mufti and I went by a beautiful palace on the bank of Tigris. We found a slave girl upon it singing and a beautiful youngman looking at her and saying : 0 girl, repeat this song to me. When she repeated the song, the young man exclaimed. It has coincided with my thought. Suddenly he raised a loud shriek and expired. The owner of the palace gave her release from slavery, gifted away the palace, gave up everything and left for an unknown destination and his whereabouts were not afterwards found. His ecstasy was so strong as wine intoxicates a man.
Once Khizr was asked about songs. He said : Surely it is such a slippery stone upon which the feet of the learned can not remain firm. Song arouses the hidden feelings of a man as intoxicants raise the passion of man. But he is saved whom God saves by the light of His guidance.
The poet Sa'labi said with regard to the world in the first meaning of Sama in the following poems.
Leave the world, keep it not in your connection:
Benefits therefrom are less than its harms.
Remember always the angel of death, cruel and hard. Many statements are there about the word's cruel nature, But it is good to me all life long, who will understand? It has beautiful face which charms all men. But its heart is filled up with destructive poison.
In the second meaning of Sama, these poems can be applied well to oneself, that is, to his condition of mind. God says : They don't fear God and He ought to be feared. In this case, he fears
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God for show and not out of fear or love for Him. In other words, he is not placed, on a high spiritual plane. For this reason, The Prophet said: 0 od, I am unable to count Thy glory. Thou art as Thou praised Thyself. He also said : I pray to rod for forgiveness seventy times everyday and night, 'This forgiveness is for reaching a higher plane of spirituality from its lower plane. In the third meaning of song, a man considers his present condition as little after seeing the advanced condition of others. This depends upon the proportion of the purity of his mind and his intellect. The more his mind is pure, the more he is advanced to spirituality by hearing songs.
(d) The fourth condition is that of the hearer of songs who reached the highest stage of Ma'arfat after crossing different conditions and different stages. He is lost to everything except the knowledge of God. Even he loses his own personality, his own condition and his own actions and deeds. He is like a man who is tossing in the ocean being submerged therein. His condition is that of the women who cut their hands unknowingly seeing the exquisite beauty of Joseph. Thus the Sufi loses himslef and enters the stage of Fana Fillah, immergence in God. He loses himself from all things around him. Those who love God deeply cannot look to things other than God. He is like that intoxicated man who loses sense of all things.
The sage Abul Hasan Nuri said that he heard a man singing this song:
0 darling. I seek from the lasting love. When it comes, intellect goes from me.
He a once got up and inmerged inecstacy. He went to an open field an began to run in it when sugarcanes were cut leaving the roots crest. His feet got wounded and he began to run upto next morning. As a result his feet began to bleed and after some days he expried. This is the highest stage of a Siddiq which can be gained only by some songs. That is the end of human attributes . The perfect stage is such a condition that one forgets therein his own life and conditions . Such a man hears songs for God and hears knowledge about God and from God. This rank is for one who immerges himself with rays of truth and crosses the boundary of condition and actions. His Fana is not Fana of his body but of his soul. By souls I don't mean his heart of blood and
Love ana nrornernuuu
V Ul 11
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flesh but Latifa or essence connected with God and which is a spiritual thing. This essence is a clean mirror which has got no colour of its own. It takes whatever colour is presented to it. Similar by transparent glass has got not colour of its own. It takes the colour of whatever is put in it. It has got no form and it takes the form of whatever thing it is made of Similarly whatever thing is put in Latifa, it takes its form and colour. So a poet sings:
Cup and wine-both are liquid, Both are one, both are soft.
It seems it is wine, not a cup of wine. It seems it is cup, without wine.
This is a stage out of the stages of spiritual learning. From it arises a mistaken idea of those persons who claim Hulul (transfiguration) and Itehad (transmigration). Hulut means change of condition or transfiguration. Its another name is Ittehad or transmigration. This is near the claim of the Christians who claim Lahut with Nasut or godhood with manhood. This is just like the saying of that man who, seeing the red colour in mirror says that the colour of mirrors is red.
SECOND STAGE OF SAMA-ECSTASY (UZD)
After the understanding of songs, the stage of ecstasy comes. Junnun Misri said that Sama songs bring truth. Abu Hussain Daraj said : In Sama, there is connection of ecastcy which is a deep feeling in mind arising out of the effect of songs. He said Sama has taken me to the field of beauty and given me drink of sweets in the cup of purity and thereby I gained the station of contentment. Shibli said : The open form of Sama creates disputes and its internal form gives instructions. A wise man said: Song is food to the soul of a spiritual man. Hazrat Amr-b-Osman Makki said: No word can explain ecstasy because it is a secret thing of God to the believers and men of firm faith. Abu Sayeed-b-Arabi said that the meaning of ecstasy is lifting a screen, meeting with Lord, seeing of unseen things, appearance of secret words. He said : Ecstasy comes at the time of violent Zikr, at the time of heart pierching fear, or subtle event,. or at the time of getting benefit, or at the time of serious slip at te time of seeing unseen things, grief over lost thing, repentance for past sins. Wuzd means presentation of an open thing, a secret thing
before a secret thing, an unseen thing before an unseen thing. Then there is walk without feet and zikr without open zikr.
Meaning of Ecastcy. It arises out of mental condition which is of two kinds. One kind is Mokashafa and Moshahada which lead to unseen and unthinkable knowledge. Another kind leads to unthinkable change, fear, and repentance. Songs only awaken these conditions. If there is change of open loudly limbs as a result of songs, it is called ecstasy or Wuzd. Muslim Abadani said
Once t'he sages Saleh Mari, Otatual Golam, Abdul Wahed and Muslim Aswari alighted near us on the bank of sea. I invited them to a feast one night. When they came. I placed before them the feast. Soon after, a singer sang
Those who are kept forgetful of next world
by delicious food.
Will be thrown into Hell, it will be
of no use.
On hearing this , Otbatual Golam at once raised a loud shrieked and fell senseless. They did not take any food and I took away the feast saved before them. When the heart is pure and clean, it hears the message of heaven and sees also Khizr as he appears for men having experience of soul in different forms. In these conditions the angels descended upon the Prophet with figures. The Prophet saw Gebriel twice in his natural form which occupied the whole space of heaven. The knowledge which is generated in man in the uncommon condition of heart is called Tafarros (inherent sipirtual knowledge). The Prophet said : Fear the uncommon and unseen knowledge of a believer as he sees with the rays of God. The Prophet gives hint to this Kashf by saying : Had not the devil roamed over the hearts of the children of Adam, they would have surely seen the sovereignty of heaven. Heart is' the ground of the devil and his forces , except those hearts which are pure and clean as God says, 'Except those servants among them who are sincere God says : You will have no control over My servants.
DIFFERENT KINDS OF KASHF
(1) If ecstasy goes away, kashf may be explained, (2) it cannot be explained as it is an unseen thing from the unseen world. Ecstasy is of two kinds-(1) that which arises spontaneously and
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(2) that which is brought with difficulty. The Prophet said : 0 God, give me grace of loving Thee and the grace of loving those who love Thee and who bring near Thy love. Trembling and softness of heart owing to fear are songs of ecstasy . God says The believers are those whose hearts become fearful when God is remembered to them God says : If I had revealed this Quran to the mountain, you would have found it fearful and perturbed owing to fear of God. So from the point of circumstances, the God-fear is called ecstacy. The Prophet said : Adorn the recitation of the Quran with your sweet voice. He said to Abu Musa Ash'ari : You have been given an instrument out of those of the family of David. Many a time, the Sufis fell into ecsacty after hearing the melodious recitation of the Quran. The Prophet said: The chapter Hudand similar chapters have made me grey-haired. This is nothing but ecstacy. The Prophet once was reading a verse of the Quran and at once he fell down senseless. The Prophet once was reading : If you punish them, they are merely your servants he began to weep. God praised such persons of ecstacy by saying: When they hear what has been revealed to the Prophet, you will see their eyes shedding tears as they perceived truth. It has been reported that when the Prophet prayed, voice a could be heard from his chest like the sound of heated cauldron.
ECSTACY OF COMPANIONS AND
Hazrat Jarah-b-Ali Aufa led prayers in the most humble spirit. One day when he was reciting 'Remember when the trumpet will be blown' he at once fell down senseless and expired immediately. Hazrat Omar once heard a man reciting this verse : The punishment of your Lord must come and there is nobody to remove it. He at once raise loud shriek and fell down senseless. He was brought to his house and he suffered for nearly one month. Hazrat Abu Zarr once heard a verse recited by Saleh Mari and raised a shriek and then breathed his last. Imam Shafeyi once heard a Qazi reciting this verse : It is such a day when they will not talk and they will not be given permission to raise an excuse-at once he fell down unconscious. Hazrat Ali-b-Fuzail once heard a man reciting this verse-day when the people will stand up before the Lord of the universe, he fell down senseless. This is the condition of the Sufis also. The sage Shibi was praying behind an Imam in Ramazan and the Imam was reciting : If I will,
Vol-II The Book of Wordly Usages 177
I can take back surely what I revealed to you. Immediately Shibli raised a shriek and his face became changed. The sage Junaid said : I said once that a man remained unconscious before the sage Sarri Sakti. He said to me : This man fell senseless on hearing the erses of the Quran. I said : Rectie to him the verses again. When they were recited, he regained consciousness. Sibli said to him: Where have you found this ? I said : Israil lost his sight owing to the loss of his son and regained it by reason of his son Sibli thought it good and hinted at the poetry recited by Junaid
I drank it again and found my salvation. I got taste and drank with satisfaction.
A certain sage said : One ,night, I was reading this verse, 'Every life shall taste of death. I recited it again and again, Suddenly an unknown voice said to me.: How long will you read this verse ? You have killed thereby thirty four jin who did not. raise their heads upwards from their birth till now, Whenever Hazrat Ibrahim-b-Adham heard any man reciting this verse-When the sky will be rent asunder' is limbs trembled till he was restored to his former position.
If the recitation of the verses of the Quran does not cause any effect in mind, he is like a man who hears nothing though he is called and said something. He is deaf, dumb and ignorant.
It has been stated that Abul Hasan Nuri was once in a company who were quarreling about a matter. He was then silent. Afterwards he raised up his head and recitedthe following
At mid-day, who is singing heart captivating songs, Roaming from branch to branch with broken heart. It brings to mind the love of the days of joy. It brings tears as he sheds tears telling,woeful tales, My weeping sometimes makes his mind soft I complain it to him, but he understand it not.
His complaint also becomes useless, I understand it not. I can know him, if he understands the
Pangs of my grieved soul.
He also cannot forget me even in times.
of great sorrow
178 Love and Brotherhood Vol-II
The narrator stated that after hearing this song, there was none in the company who did not stand up as a result of ecstacy. the dispute among them could not arouse their ecstacy.
THIRD STAGE OF SAMA SONG
This is the third stage of outward expression of the effect of religious. songs, namely to fall in swoon, trembling of bodily limb, tearing of clothes etc. It has got five rules.
(1) First rule. It is connected with the time, place and hearing of the sayings of friends. It means that Sama causes no effect at the time of a serious work such as eating, praying etc. The time when a mind is not engaged is fit for hearing religious songs. Regarding place also, care should be taken not to hold it in public roads, in a dark room in undesirable place where attention cannot remain fixed. Regarding friends, it appears that ecastcy seldom arises in their presence though it becomes a matter of amusement to them. In such an assembly, there is mostly a show of ecstacy and not real ecstacy.
(2) Second rule. A spiritual guide with his disciples should not hear songs as it may cause them injury for three reason. The first reason in that some disciples are not so thirsty for spiritual drink that they can quench their thirst from such songs. They should engage themselves in zikr. The second reason is that the hearts of some of them are not so much broken as they can find taste in it and escape its injury. The third reason is that sometimes songs brings greater harm than benefit to some disciples and they do not look to lawful and unlawful thing. The sage Sahal Tastari said : The ecstacy which does not support the Book of God and Sunnat of the Prophet is void. The sage Junaid said : I once saw the devil in dream and asked him : Do you exercise any influence on my disciples ? He said : I do at two times-,at the time of song and at the time of look. I enter in them at these two times.
(3) Third rule. It is to hear attentively the religious songs not to look to the audience, not to express outward signs of ecstacy as far as possible such as raising shriek, trembling of limbs, dancing etc. It is reported that while Moses was narrating the stories of the children of Israil, a man present tore his cloth to pieces. God then revealed to Moses Tell the man : Break your heart and not
Vol-II The Book of Wordly Usages 179
(4) Fourth rule. At the time of hearing religious songs, don't stand up, cry hoars but restrain yourself from these acts. It has been reported from many companions that they danced out of joy. After the death of Hazrat Hamza a quarrel ensured among Hazrat Ali , Jafar and Zaid regarding the maintenance of the children of Jafar. The Prophet said to Hazrat Ali : You are from me and I am from you. At this good news, Hazrat Ali began to dance. The Prophet said to Jafar : You resemble me in character and conduct. At this Jafar also began to dance in joy. He said to the slave Zaid : You are our brother and chief. He also danced in joy. Then the Prophet gave charge of the children of Hamza to Jafar as the wife of Jafar was the maternal uncle of the children and a maternal uncle is like mother. In another narration, it has been reported that the Prophet allowed Ayesha to see the dance of some Abyssinian slaves. Ecstacy sometimes becomes so strong that one cannot restrain himself and does act contrary to his
(5) Fifith rule. If anyone stands up out of ecstacy among a group, others also should stand up as it is a rule of good manners of association.
(6) Sixth rule. There is another sort of ecstacy namely ecstacy for show which is illegal and should not be shown in any respect.
So from what has been stated above, songs sometimes become lawful and sometimes unlawful According to the circumstances of each case. Sometimes it becomes undesirable. It is unlawful for those youths whose sexual passion is strong as it increase their hidden vices in their minds. It is not illegal for those who enjoy good moral songs and it is commendable for those religious persons who are engrossed in divine love. God
THE END OF CHAPTER 9 OF VOLUME 2
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