REVIVAL OF RELIGIOUS LEARNINGS IMAM GHAZZALI'S
IHYA UL UM-ID-DIN
THE BOOK OF WORLDLY USAGES
CHAPTER VIII Rules of journey 151
CHAPTER IX Music and Exctacy 162
CHAPTER X Enjoining good & Forbidding Evil 180
CHAPTER XI Conduct and Character of Holy Prophet 207
RULES AND REGULATIONS OF JOURNEY
Journey is a means to ward off undesirable thing or to get objects of love, it is of two kinds-)1) Physical journey from one's native place to a distant country and (2) mental or spiritual journey to God in heaven. The latter is better, but it is fraught with dangers and difficulties and the path is unknown and unacquainted. The sojourners are indifferent to the wealth of this path. Hence the so journers in this pathare few. God says of this path : I shall show them My signs in the vacant regions and in yourselves . God says : There are signs in the world and in yourselves for the believers. Don't you mind ? He who keeps away from this journey is said by God in the following verse as an unbveliever : You pass by these sings morning and evening. Don't you understand ? God says : How many sign there are in the heavens and the earth which appear to them always but they remain heedless from them. He who remains satisfied with this journey, roam in such a paradise cheefully which extends to the heavens and the earth, though his body remains in his house.
RULES OF JOURNEY FROM
BEGINNING TO END
Journey means to go from one place to another. There are benefits and harms of journey. One is to shift from his place, of residence on account of religion or for search of livelihood. There are therefore two kinds of objects of search-worldly and next worldly. name and fame, wealth and riches, power and influence etc. are the worldly objects of search. Acquisition of knowledge is a religious matter and the journey for this purpose is of two kinds-journey for acquisition of religious knowledge and for correction of one's own character and conduct or journey for acquisition of knowledge of the wonderful creations of God, such as journey of Alexander. Journey for actions with learning is of two kind-to visit the holy places, such as Mecca, Medina, Baitul Moqaddas or journey for defense of the frontiers of Islamic state. Journeys are also undertaken for visiting the holy shrines of the religious leaders and friends of God and of those religious people who are alive. Thus it is seen that there are different purposes of journey.
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(1) Journey for acquisition knowledge is of two kinds-compulsory and optional. when acquisition of knowledge is compulsory, journey for that is also compulsory. When it is optional, journey for that is also optional. The Prophet said : He who comes out of his house for acquisition of knowledge remains in the path of God till he returns home. The Prophet said : If a man crosses a path in search of learning, God makes his path to paradise easy. Hazrat Sayeed-b-Musayyeb travelled many days in search of one Hadis, Hazrat Shubi said : If a man travels from Syria to the distant Yemen to hear a sermon, his journey will not fruitless. Hazrat Jaker-b-Abduallh travelled from Medina to Egypt for one month and heard a Hadis from Abdullah-b-Anis Ansari.
(2) Journey for correction on one's character and conduct. To walk in the path of the next world is not possible without character and conduct. He who does not enquire into his hidden faults cannot purify his heart. The name journey means to turn away from bad character and conduct of the people for which God reveals the secrets of heaven and earth. In journey, a man's character is disclosed. When a person was brought before Hazrat Omar as a witness, he asked him : Were you with anybody in a journey for which you have known his character ? he said : I was not. Hazrat Omar said : Then I think you do not know him. Hazrat Bashar Hafi said : 0 learned men, if you would have come out in journey, you would have been purified, because if water is logged in a place, it becomes polluted and if it is flowing, it is made pure. In short, if a man remains confined in house, his character and conduct are kept limited there nd his bad character is not disclosed as no opportunity arises in his case to see'things opposed to this nature.
(3) Journey for seeing the wonderful creations of God. There is food for reflection in the wonderful creations of God. There is nothing in the world mountains, seas heaven and various kinds of creations which do not testify to the unity of God. He who appreciates it can see and hear them and he who does not pay attention to them cannot appreciate it. By hearing, we means the hearing of heart. Ear cannot hear without sound and it appreciates the present condition. It is just like the saying of a man who narrates the story of wall and nail. The wall says to the nail. Don't give me trouble. The nail says : Ask one who beats
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me. The rod which is behind me beats me. Why does he not give me up ? There is no sign in the heaven and earth which does not bear testimony to the Uniquencess and unity of God It is its Tauhid. Various kinds of things glorify His name. Nobody understands their glorification or Tasbeeh as they do not undertake mental journey. If it was not possible. Solomon would not have'understood the words of birds and Moses the talks of God. Those talks have got no words or sounds. The signs of writing that are on the backs of lifeless things can be appreciated by a man of deep insight. His outward journey is not required. Only his mental journey is necessary. Such a man has got object of joy in hearing and he can command the sun, moon and starts. The sun, moon and stars roam in the cycle of time once, twice or many times in months or years. If a man goes round of mosque other than the Ka'ba for which he is ordered, his action would be considered as wonderful. If one who has been ordered to roam round the sky roams round the earth, his action will be considered wonderful. So a sojourner who cannot roam in the material world remains within the station of his own house without crossing the various stations to reach God. For this reason, a pious man said : Man says, open your eyes, you will see the wonderful creations of God. But I say : Close your eyes and you will see them. Both the views are true. The first man gives the news of the first station near the house and the second man gives the news of the distant stations. Without the satisfied soul of the sojourner, the distant stations cannot be crossed. Sometimes he roams for many years in one station. Sometimes God's grace shows him the straight path and there are few who can catch this favour. Those who cross these stations by the light of God's grace, can earn lasting fortune. The sovereignty of the spiritual world is like that of this world. Firstly, those who search it are few and out of them many remain with face of destruction and they decrease considerably while the goal is reached. Those who are coward cannot get this sovereignty. In order to get the high rank, one is to labour hard and pass many sleepless nights,. God does not give it to those who are idle and coward.
(2) Second kind of journey. It is the journey for divine service, such as pilgrimage, Jihad, etc, visit of the shrines of Prophets, companions of Prophets and other sages. The merits which are gained by calling on the living sages can be obtained by visiting their graves. Journey for such purpose is allowed and
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the following Hadis is not an obstate to that. The Prophet said Don't the your camel in any place except in three mosques, this mosque of mine, the mosque of Ka'ba and the distant mosque (Baitual Moqaddas). Except these three mosques, all other mosque are equal in rank. The merits in meeting the living sages are greater than meeting of those who are dead. There is written in the Torah : Meet with your brother Muslim for the sake of God after walking even four miles. We have been informed about the merits of visiting the mosque of Medina and Ka'ba. The merits of visiting Baitual Moqaddas are also great. Once Hazrat Ibn Omar travelled from Medina for Baitul Muquddas and prayed five times within the mosque. Hazrat Solrmon prayed to God : 0 Lord If a man wishes to visit the mosque and does not wish nothing except praying therein, let him to lose Thy mercy till he remains therein. When he goes out of the mosque, take him out of his sins as on the day his mother gave birth to him. God accepted his invocation.
(3) Third kind of journey. It is gcod to make journey to get free from the causes obstructing religion. It is the way of the Prophet to flee for getting free form work which is beyond one's capacity. It is also compulsory to flee away for freeing the mind from engagement in actions, name and fame and power. Unless the mind is freed from things other than God, the religion does not become perfect. If it is not possible , the more one gets free from troubles, the better it is for the mind to be free from such thoughts.. The mind can be made light or heavy. Those who can increase them are ruined . It is not safe for a worldly man to get relief from anxiceties unless he makes journey to a distant place and frees his mind from all sorts of worldly anxiceties. Mind has got no space both for the Creator and also for the created. There are some men like Prophet and sages who are mentally strong like those who are physically strong. There are differences even in their physical strength. How many persons there are who can carry two and a half maunds of loads but it cannot be carried by a weak man. The strength can be increased by gradual, and constant efforts. Similar is the condition of mental strength. In order to reach the high spiritual stage, continued and sustained efforts are necessary. For this reason, the early sages used to stay far away from their own houses. Sufiyan Saori said : The present time is very perilous. When the unknown persons suffer loss at present, what is the condition of those who have got name and
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fame ? So the present people should change their residences in order that they may not be known to the people. Hazrat Abu Nayeem said : I saw once Sufiyan Saori going with one pitcher in one hand and one bag of leather full of articles in another. On being asked, he said : I am going to such a place where commodities are cheap. Live where these things are cheap as it is safe for your religion and light for your anxieties. Hazrat Ibrahim Khaolan used not to reside in any place for more than forty days.
(4) Fourth kind journey. There is no fault in taking journey to another place for saving oneself from epidemic diseases like small pox, cholera, plague, ete, or where commodities are cheap. Sometimes such journey becomes compulsory and sometimes commendable. If there in outbreak of epidemics in a certain locality, the people should not shift to another place as the Prophet said : Some people were punished with epidemic disease before you. It remained in the world after that. It comes sometimes and goes away sometimes. When it breaks out in any place, don't go near it. When it breaks out in such a place where you live in , don't go out of it fleeing. The Prophet said: My people will be destroyed by attack and epidemic diseases. Hazrat Ayesha asked : What is attack ? He said: It is an epidemic disease like the plague of camels. It grows in their sinews. He who dies of this disease dies a martyr. He who stays therein is like a prisoner in the way of God. He who flees away from it flees away as it were from jihad. The Prophet said to one of his companions: Don't set up any partner with God even though you are punished and threatened. Obey your parents. If they tell you to go out of your properties, you will go. Don't give up any prayer willingly. He who gives up a prayer willingly gets free from the security of God. Don't drink wine as it is the key to all sins. Give up sin as i displeases God. Don't flee away from Jihad. If an epidemic disease attacks the people among whom you live, stay with them. Spend from your wealth for your family but do not lift your stick from them and generate fear in them. It appears from the above Hadis that to flee away from an epidemic disease and also to come to it are prohibited.
From what has been described, it is found that journey is of different kinds-good, bad and lawful. What is bad becomes sometimes unlawful as the fleeing away of a slave or of a rebel. What is not good is to flee away from epidemic diseases. What is
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good is sometimes compulsory and sometimes commendable. Journey for pilgrimage and learning are compulsory and for meeting with sages and visiting their graves is commendable. What is lawful depends on niyat or intention. If journey , is undertaken for earning money by abstaining from begging, to protect the honour of onself and his family or to give charity, it is lawful as they are intended within the actions of the next world . The Prophet said : All actions are judged by intention . This Hadis is applicable to compulsory, commendable and lawful journeys. A wise man said : God appoints angles to sojourners. They look to their intentions and they are given blessing according to their intentions.
RULES TO BE OBSERVED IN JOURNEY
(1) Pay compensation of oppression and the debts and loans, provide the maintenance of those who are dependent on you and return the trusts deposited with you . Take lawful and good things for the journey and take sufficient money so that you may help others also in their needs . Hazrat Ibn Omar said : To help a man in journey with lawful money is to honour him. Treat well with the fellow pilgrims in journey. Give them food from you and disclose your good conduct to them as journey discloses the secret faults of mind. A wise man said : If a man is praised by his fellow trader or fellow sojourner, there is no doubt that he is a good man. A wise man said . Three man cannot by blamed for their anxiety- fasting man, a patient man and a sojourner. The conduct of a fellow travellers, becomes perfect if he treats well with his fellow travellers, helps them in their needs, shows sympathy with them and helps them in their loading and unloading luggages and loads.
(2) To take good companion in journey. Take such a companion in journey who will help you in your actions and religion. When you forget, he will remind you. When you want help, he will help you as every man is upon the religion of his friend. The Prophet prohibited to take journey alone. He said Three persons form a congregation. He said : When three of you form a company in journey, choose one of you as a leader. The companions used to do it and say : This man is our leader. The Prophet then appointed him as leader . Make such a man as leader who is best among you in character and conduct, most kind to his companisions and places the needs of companions
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more than his own needs. The affairs of the world are best done if one is entrusted with the management as one God manages the affairs of the universe : Had there been two Gods, they would have quarrelled and all affairs of the world would have been mismanaged. The duties of a leader should be learnt from the following example.
Two friends Abdullah and Abu Ali Rabati once started on a journey. Abdullah said to Rabati : You are my leader Rabati said to Abdullah : You are my leader. Then Abdullah was made leader of the two. Thereafter he carried his own luggage and the luggage of Rabati upon his back. One night, there fell profuse rain. Abdullah held a blanket over his companion for the whole night. Whenever Rabati said : 'Don't do it' Abdullah said : Have you not selected me as your leader ? So don't order me and don't do other than what I order you to do. Rabati then said: I wished then that I should have been dead and that I should not have said to him: You are my leader. This should be the duty of a leader in journey or in administration. The Prophet said : It is better to have four companions in journey. There is surely some good in what the Prophet said : There are two duties of a traveller to protect the luggages, and to go for taking necessary things. These can well be done if there are four persons in a company in
(3) Take leave of relatives and friends. At the time of starting, recite the following : I entrust to God your religion, your trust and the results of your action. The Prophet used to recite it. The Prophet said : When anyone of you wishes to take journey, he should pray for his friends, because God gives good to them on account of his prayer. The Prophet said : When you take leave of any man, say: May God give provision of God-fear, forgive your sins and give you good wherever you go. He who stays at home should say this to the traveler. Hazart Musa-b-Ward said: One day I intended to go an a journey and came to Abu Hurairah to take leave of him. He said : 0 cousin, shall I not teach you what the Prophet had taught me at the time of fare well ? I said: Yes He said : I entrust you to God who does not break His trust. One day a man came to the Prophet and said : I intend to go on a journey. Give me advance. The Prophet said to him : In the protection and upkeep of God. My God give you provision of God-fear. pardon your sins and direct you to good wherever you
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are, When you entrust to God, entrust, everything to Him and not a particular thing. The result of entrustment of a particular thing is found in the following story. A certain man with his son came to Hazrat Omar at the time of distribution of money among the people. Hazrat Omar said to him : The appearance of the boy is exactly like yours. I have never found such similarity. The man said : 0 Commander of the faithful, I am narrating his story to you . When he was in his mother's womb, I was in a journey. When starting, I said to his mother : I am entrusting the child in your womb to God. Then I went abroad. When I returned, I saw that my wife has died. When I went to her grave, I found a fire burning over her grave. I asked the people : Why is the fire? They said : This is the grave of your wife. Every night, we are seeing this fire. I dug her grave and found a lamp burning there and this child was playing with the lamp, Then I heard a voice from heaven : You have entrusted this child to Me. Had you entrusted his mother also to Me, you would have found her after your return.
(4) Pray Istikhara prayer before starting. A man came to the Prophet and said : I have made vow for a journey but I have written a death instruction. Tell me with whom I shall keep itwith my son, father or brother ? The Prophet said : If a man prays four rakats in his house before starting on a journey he, cannot leave a better thing than it. He shall pray these four rak'ats after putting on his dress of journey reciting therein chapter Ikhlas and then say : 0 God, I am seeking. Thy nearness by this prayer. So make this prayer as my successor for my family and property. Then the prayer becomes his successor in place of his family and property and guards round his house till he returns.
(5) Recite this invocation at the door of the house at the time of coming out for journey. In the name of God, I depend on God and t ere is no might and strength except in God. 0 Lord, I seek refug4 to Thee that I may not be misguided and that I may misguide nobody, that I may not slip and that I may not make another slip, that I may not oppress or I may not be oppressed ; that I may not make nobody ignorant or that nobody may make me ignorant. When you walk on, say : God, I have come out with Thy help, on Thee I depend, I consider Thee as my protector and to Thee I turn my face. 0 God, you are my object of trust and you are my hope. You are sufficient for what troubles me and what
you know of me. It is glory to live in Thy neighbourhood, Thy presence is sufficient. There is no deity but Thee. 0 God, increase niy: God-fear, pardon my sins, guide me towards good wherever I go.
(6) Come out in the morning for journey. The Prophet came out in the morning for journey to Tabuk and said : 0 God, give blessing to my people in the morning of Thursday. It is commendable to come out for journey on Thursday morning. The Prophet seldom came out on a journey except on Thursday. The Prophet said: Give blessing to my people in the morning of Saturday. When the'Prophet sentany expedition, he sent in the early part of the day. The Prophet said : Give blessing of morning to my people. Journey should not be undertake in the morning of Friday. The Prophet said : To go with the warriors in the way of God a few steps and to take care of their conveyance morning and evening are dearer to me than the world and its riches.
(7) Not to alight except in the mid-day is Sunnat. Most part of the Prophet's journey was at night. The Prophet said : You should take to journey during night because the earth is not so straitened at day as it does at night. when you alight at a station, pray two rak'ats and say : 0 God, I seek refuge to Thee with the help of Thy perfect words from the evils Thou hast created.
(8) Don't separate yourself from the company as you may be murdered. There shall be a guard at the time of sleep at night. When the Prophet slept at the first part of night he spread out his hands and when he slept at the latter part of night, he placed his head upon his hand. He used to do that to stop over- sleeping. If there are two companions, one shall guard the other.
(9) Show mercy to a riding animal and don't give loads to it beyond its capacity. Don't beat it on its face as it is prohibited . Don't sleep over its back as it gives trouble to the riding animal. The Prophet said : Don't take up the backs of your riding animals as a seat for comfort. It is commendable to a light from the animal morning and evening thereby the animal is given rest.
(10) Take six things in journey. Hazrat Ayesha reported that when the Prophet went out on a journey, he used to take with him five things-mirror, antimony, scissors, toothstick and comb. In another narration six things-mirror, uninal, tooth-stick, scissors, antimony, and comb. Sa'ad said : The Prophet always used to take mirror and antimony with him in journey. The
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Prophet said : At the time of going to bed, you should use antimony, as it increase eye-sight and grows eye-lids. It has been reported that the Prophet used to apply antimony thrice in each eye.
(11) Rules of returning from journey. Wherever the Prophet returned form expedition, pilgrimage umrah and at the end of other actions, he recited Takbir three times at the time of crossing any elevated place and said : There is no deity but God, He is one, there is no partner for Him, sovereignty is His, praise is His and He is powerful over everything . Thereafter send news of your arrival through a man to your family. Don't come to them all at once, lest you may see any undesirable thing. Nobody should come to his family from journey at night. The Prophet prohibited it. Whenever he returned from journey, he used to enter first in the mosque, pray there two rak'ats and then enter his house and say : I have returned home being repentant to our Lord, I am making such repentance which leaves no remainder of sin. It is sunnat to take some delicious eatables for the members of the family. It has been reported in Hadis : - If one is unable to take anything with him, he should take at least a piece of stone in his bag. He laid a great emphasis to this as it cements love and affection.
Secret rules of journey. Nobody should take journey except to increase the progress of religion. If there is chance of loss of any portion of religion, he should return home. Whenever you go out, intend to meet the religious people of that place and try to get benefit from them. Don't stay in one place for more than a week or ten days. If you wish to meet your relatives there, don't stay with him for more than three days which is the limit of entertainment of guests.
SOME MATTERS BEFORE JOURNEY
The matters which should be known before journey are divided into two class-(1) to know the rules of religion made easy for journey. (2) and to know about the Qibla and fixed times of prayer. In ablution, two things have been made easy in journey, to wipe over socks and to make Tayammam. Prayer also has been made easy in some matter-to make prayer short, to unite two compulsory prayers, to pray on conveyance and to
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pray while walking one foot. In journey, it is not compulsory to fast. These seven rules have been made easy in a journey.
(1) To wipe over socks. Hazrat Safwan-b-Asal said : When we were in a journey, the Prophet ordered us not to open socks of leather of for three day's and three nights . Inresidence, one can wipe over socks for one day and one night. Sockes must be put on after full ablution. The socks must not be turned in any place and they are not to be opened during the limited time. They are to be wiped over the portions of ablution only.
(2) To make Tayammam Tayammam is allowed in journey when water is at a distance from where sound are not heard or there are ferocisous beasts near water. The palms of two hands must be thrust upon the earth and with the palms,-face is to be wiped and then the palms will again be thrust upon earth and therewith the hands upto joints will be wiped out. One compulsory prayer is to be performed with one Tayammam along with sunnat and optional prayer.
(3) To make compulsory prayer short. The noon, afternoon and night prayer may be made short by two rak'ats . It is to be performed in due time with niyyat of Qasr and under no Imam who performs full four rak'ats. According to Hanafilaw, Qasr may be performed after crossing a distance of 48 miles from residence.
(4) To unite two compulsory prayers. Noon prayer may be delayed upto afternoon prayer or the latter may be prayed along with noon prayer in journey. Similar is the case with evening and night prayers which can be said together. The evening prayer may be said with the night prayer or the night prayer with the evening prayer. It is lawful to give Jumma prayer in journey.
(5) Qibla. The Prophet prayed sunnat prayers towards the direction of his riding animal while riding on it. Thereon prayers were said by hints in bending and prostration. One need not turn towards Qibla at the start of prayer.
(6) It is allowed to perform sunnat prayer while walking on foot by hints and jestures without sitting at the time of Tahayyiat.
(7) It is allowed for a sojourner not to fast. It may be kept on other on other days.
THE END OF CHAPTER 8 OF VOLUME 2
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