REVIVAL OF RELIGIOUS LEARNINGS
Translated by FAZL-UL-KARIM VOL. I
VOLUME ONE: THE BOOK OF WORSHIP
Secrets of prayer 133
Stories of prayer of God fearing men 147
Merits of Jumma Prayer 151
Optional prayers 155
Prayer is the pillar of religion and safeguard and root of religious belief the chief of religious actions. The chapter is divided into seven sections.
EXCELLENCE OF PRAYER
EXCELLENCE OF AZAN: The Prophet said : Three persons will remain on the Resurection Day on the mountain of black musk. They will have no fear of account and they will have no anxiety till they become free from what is near men. (1) One who recites the Quran to seek the pleasure of God and leads the prayer of the people who remain pleased with him. (2) One who proclaims 9zan in a mosque for pleasure of God and call the people towards the path of God. (3) One who is given trouble in the world regarding his livelihood but does not give up the actions of the next world in searching it. The Prophet said : If a man, jinn or anything hears the Azan of a Muazzen, he will testify for him on the Resurrection day. The Prophet said : The hand of the Merciful remains on the head of a Muazzen till he finishes his Azan. God says : If a man calls towards God and does good, who is better than him in preaching ? This was 'revealed regarding a Muazzen. The "Prophet said When you hear Azan, say what Muazzen says. Say at the time of Haia-alas-salat "There is no might; and strength except through God." When he says : prayer has begun, say 'May God establish the prayer and keep its tongue so long as the heaven and earth exist. When at the time of Fajr prayer it is recited 'prayer is better then sleep', say 'you have spoken the truth, you have spoken good and given admonition,' Say when the Azan is finished : 0 God, Lord of this perfect invitation and ever living prayer, grant position, means and honour to Muhammad and raise him up to the of glory which Thou hast promised him."
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EXCELLENCE OF COMPUSLORY PRAYER
God says: Prayer is compulsory on the believers at the appointed times. The Prophet said : God has made compulsory for His servants prayer for five times. If a man observes them and does not leave anything out of their duties, there is'covenant for him from God that He will admit him in paradise. If a man does not observe them, there is no covenant from God for him. If He wishes, He may punish him and if He wishes, He may admit him in paradise. The Prophet said : Prayer five times is like a flowing canal of pure water by the side of one's houes. He takes bath five times daily in it. Will you see any impurity in his body ? They said : No. The Prophet said : As water removes impurities, so prayer for five times removes sins. The Prophet said: Prayer for five times expiates the sins of a man till he does not commit major sins. The Prophet said : The distinction between us and the hypocrites is our presence at morning and night prayers and their absence at these two prayers. The Prophet said : If a man meets God after destroying his prayer. God will not look towards his virtues. The Prophet said : Prayer is the pillar of religion. He who gives it up destroys the pillar. The Prophet was once asked : Which action is best ? He said : To pray at the appointed times. The Prophet said : If a man protects his prayer for five times with full ablution and at appointed times, these will be proof and light for him on the Resurrection Day. He who destroys his prayer will rise with Pharaoh and Haman.
The Prophet said: Prayer is a key to paradise. He said : God has not made anything compulsory dear to Him for this servants after Tauhid than prayer. Had there been anything better than it, he would have fixed it for the angels. They took from Him the organs of prayer. Some make bow, some prostrate, some stand, some sit. The Prophet said : He who gives up prayer intentionally becomes an infidel. In other words, he becomes near coming out of faith as his. firm tie becomes loose and his pillar falls down just as when a man comes near a town it is said that he has reached the town and entered it. The Prophet said : He who give up prayer intentionally, becomes free from the convenant of Muhammad. The Prophet said : 0 Abu Hurairah, enjoin on the members of your family to pray as you can't conceive wherefrom God will supply you provision.
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EXCELLENCE OF FULFILLING THE DUTIES OF PRAYER: The Prophet said: Compulsory prayer is like a scale. He who measures out in full takes full. The Prophet said : If two men of my followers stand in prayer, it seems that their prostrations are the same but the spirit of their prayer is like the distance of the heaven and earth. He hinted at their God-fear. The Prophet said God will not look to a man on the Resurection Day who does not make his backbone erect between his bow and prostration. The Prophet said : If a man turns his face towards another direction in prayer, God will turn his face in to that of an ass. The Prophet said : If a man says prayer at its appointed time, establishes ablution, makes his bow and prostration perfect and has got God fear, it will become bright and rise upwards and say : May God guard you as you have guarded me. If a man does not pray at its appointed time, does not make ablution well and does not make perfect his ruku and prostration and God fear, it will become dark and rise upwards and say : May God destroy you as you have destroyed me. God will keep it folded as old cloth is kept folded. The Prophet said : The word thief applies to one who steals in prayer.
EXCELLENCE OF PRAYING
The Prophet said : The rewards of a prayer in congregation is twenty seven times more than the prayer said alone. The Prophet did not see once some persons joining prayer in congregation and said : I wished that I should give order to some one to lead the prayer and oppose those who have not joined in prayer and burn their houses. In another narration : I oppose those persons who do not pray in congregation and order that their houses should be burnt with fuel. If a man among them had known what rewards there are in night prayer, he would have surely been present at night prayer. There is in Hadis : He who remains at night prayer. There is in Hadis : He who remains at night prayer prayed as it were half the night. He who remains present in the morning prayer prayed as it were the whole night. The Prophet said : He who prays a prayer in congregation fills up his neck with divine service. Hazrat Sayeed-b-Musayyeb said : I reached the mosque before Azan for 20 years consequitively. The sage Waseh said : I want three things in the world (1) such a .brother who will keep me straight if I become crooked, (2) such
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livelihood as can be earned without begging and (3) such a prayer in congregation of which the faults are forgiven to me and excellence is written for me. Hazrat Ibn Abbas said : He who does not respond to Azan does not hope for good and no good is expected from him. The Prophet said : If a man prays in congregation for forty days and does and lose even Takbir, God writes for him two salvation-(1) one salvation from hypocrisy and another from Hell.
EXCELLENCE OF PROSTRATION: The Prophet said There is nothing except secret prostration which can take one near God. The Prophet said : There is no such Muslim whom God does not give a rank in lieu of his one prostration and remove one sin from him. A man asked the Prophet : Pray that I may be included within the party of your intercession so that He may give me mercy of your intercession in paradise. The Prophet said
One who prostrates will gain the nearness of God, as God says Prostrate and seek nearness. God says : There are signs in their foreheads as an effect of prostration. It is said that this sign is effected as a result of dust that is attached to forehead at the time prostration. Some say that it is the light of God-fear as it is expressed outwardly from a secret place. This is the correct view. Some say that it is the light that will be seen on their forehead on the Resurrection Day on account of ablution. The Prophet said When a man prostrates, the devil goes away from him weeping and saying : Also ! he has been ordered to prostrate and he has prostrated. So there is Paradise for him. I have been ordered to prostrate but as I have disobeyed it, there is Hell for me. It is narrated that the Caliph Abdul Aziz used not to make prostration except on the ground. Hazrat Abu HUrairah said Prostration takes a servant near God and he makes invocation at that time.
EXCELLENCE OF GOD FEAR: God says : Pray to remember Me. God says : Don't be one of the heedless. God says : Don't come near prayer when you are intoxicated till you donot understand what you say. Some say that intoxication means a great anxiety. Some say that it means attachment to the world. There are many worshippers who do not drink wine but they ,don't know what they say in prayer. The Prophet said : If a man prays two rakats without any thought of the world therein, his past sins are forgiven. The Prophet said : Prayer is the
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embodiment of modesty, humility, entreaties, repentance, raising of hands and utterance of words "0 God, 0 God" He who does not do it, is a cheat. There is in earlier scriptures that God said : I don't accept the prayer of every one. I accept the prayer of one who humbles himself before My glory, does not take boast in doing My service and gives food for My sake to the hungry and the poor. I have made prayer compulsory, ordered for Haj and Tawaf for My remembrance. If you have got no fear of God in your mind, what is the value of your Zikr ? The Prophet said When you pray, pray in such a manner that you are bidding farewell. He said : Fear God, He will teach you. God says : Fear God and know that you must meet Him. The Prophet said : He who does not restrain himself from indecency and evil deeds in prayer keeps away God. Prayer is monazat or invocation. How can it be with heedlessness ? Hazrat Ayesha said : The Prophet used to talk with us and we also used to talk with him. When the time for prayer came, he did not as it were recognise us and we also did not recognise him, as we remained busy in declaring the glory of God. The Prophet said : God does not respond prayer of a man who does not observe it with his mind and body. When the Prophet Abraham stood in prayer, the voice of his mind could have been heard from a distance of two miles. When the sage Sayeed Tanukhi prayed, his two eyes used to shed tears which flowed down, his beard. The Prophet once saw a man in prayers sporting with his beard and said : If he and his mind had God fear, his organs also would have God-fear. It is narrated of Moslem-b-Yasar that whenever he wished to pray, he used to say to his family members : You hold conversation, I will not hear you. It is said that when he was praying in the congregational mosque,one corner of the mosque once suddenly fell down for which the people gathered there, but he could not know it till he finished his prayer. When the time of prayer came, the heart of Hazrat Ali used to tremble and his colour became changed. He was questioned : 0 Commander of the faithful, what has happened to you ? He said : It is time of trust of God which was entrusted to the heavens, earth and mountains but they became fearful of it and refused to bear it, but I am bearing it when it has come to me. When Hazrat Jainal Abedin, son of Hazrat Hussain, performed ablution, his colour turned place. His family members asked him. What troubles you at the time of ablution? He said Don't you see before whom I am going to stand ? Hazrat Daud used to say in his Monazat:0 my Lord, who lives in your house
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and from whom you accept prayer ? God revealed to him : The man who lives in My house and from whom I accept prayer is one who humbles himself before My glory, passes his life in My remembrance, controls his passion for My sake, entertains a stranger and shows kindness to the aggrieved. His light will sparkle like the rays of the sun in the sky. I respond to him if he calls me. If he invoke Me. I accept it. I give him patience in his ignorance, remembrance in his carelessness and light in his pride. His simile among the people is the smile of Ferdous in high gardens. His river does not become dry and his face does not become changed.
Once Hatem Asem was asked about prayer and he said When the time of prayer comes, I make full ablution, come to the praying place and wait there till my neighbours come there. Then I stand for prayer, face the Ka'ba with Bridge under my feet, Paradise by me right side and Hell by my left side, angel of death behind me and think that this is my last prayer. Then I stand between fear and hope, recite Takbir, make Ruk'u with humility, prostrate with fear and sit on my left waist and spead my sole of feet and keep my right side on my toes. I don't know whether my prayer has been accepted or not.
EXCELLENCE OF MOSQUE AND
God says: Those who have got faith in God and the next world inhabit God's mosques. The Prophet said : If a man constructs a mosque for God, He constructs for him a place in Paradise. The Prophet said : If a man loves mosque, God loves him. He said: When one of you enters a mosque, let him pray two rak'ats before he sits. He said : There is no prayer for mosque except in mosque. He said : Angels like one of you until he keeps seated in his praying place. They say : 0 God, send blessings on him. 0 God, have mercy on him, forgive him till he keeps his ablution or gets out of mosque. The Prophet said : There will be some people among my followers who will come to mosque and sit in groups. They will like to talk of this world and its matters. Don't sit with them. God has got no necessity of them. He said God said in some of His books : Mosques are my houses in the world and My neighbours are those people in them who are habituated to go there. Good news is for one who keeps his house pure and then meets Me in My house. He said : When you find a
man visiting mosque always, bear witness that he has got faith. He said : Random talks in mosque consumes virtues as animals eat grass. Hazrat Anas said : If a man gives a light in a mosque, angels and the bearers of the Thone seek forgiveness for him till the light exists in the mosque. Hazrat Ali said : When a man dies, praying cloth in the world and his good deeds raised high in the sky weep for him. Then he said : The heaven and earth did not weep for them and wait for them. Hazrat Ibn Abbas said : The word weeps for him for forty days.
OPEN ACTIONS IN PRAYER
After the removal of the impurities of body, place, cloth and places of shame, make ablution facing the Ka'ba and keep some open space between the two feet. Keep your head erect or bend a little and close the eyes. if you cast ,your look, cast it to your place of prostration. Then make niyyat, then raise both the hands up to the ears uttering Allhaho Akbar - God is greatest. There after recite the formula : Glory to Thee, 0 God, there is Thy priase and blessed is Thy name, exalted is Thy Majesty and there is no deity besides Thee. I seek refuge to God from the accursed devil and I begin in the name of God, the most Compassionate the most Merciful. Then recite the opening chapter of the Quran and then at least three verses of the Quran. Then saying God is greatest; bow down and recite three times 'Glory to my Lord the Great' and then fall in prostration on the ground and recite three times 'Glory to my Lord, the Great, Then sit down and then again fall prostrate and recite the formula as above mentioned and then stand erect. Thus finish one unit of prayer. Then praying another unit in this manner, sit and recite: All invocations are for God and all services and pure things. Peace be on thee 0 Prophet, and the mercy of God and His blessing. Peace be on us and on the righteous servants of God. I bear witness that there is no deity but God that Muhammad is His servant and His Messenger. Then if you do not pray four such units make the following invocation 0 God, make Muhammad and the followers of Muhammad successful as Thou didst make successful Abraham and his followers, for surely Thou art the praised, mighty. 0 God, bless Muhammad and the followers of Muhammad as Thou did bless Abraham and the followers of Abraham. Surely Thou at the
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praised, the mighty. They close up the service followed by an innovation of your choice.
Prayer should be observed with humility of mind.. God says 'Pray to remember Me.' Presence of mind is opposed to absence of mind or heedlessness. If one is heedless throughout his prayer, how can he say prayer with the purpose of remembering God ? God says : Don't be of the heedless. He says: 'Prayer is modesty and humility.' Therein there is injunctions, prohibitions and. blocks. The Prophet said : If a man does not refrain from thought of absence and evil things, it does not add to it but distance,' There are two kinds of prayer of a heedless man. The Prophet said : There are many praying men who do not gain anything in their prayer except fatigue and efforts. The prayer of a heedless man has been spoken there. The Prophet said : Nothing is written for a praying man except what he understands in his prayer. Its speciality is that there are entreaties and seekings to God in prayer. Monazat with inattention is not considered as Monazat. There are God's remembrance in prayer, Quran reading, bow, prostration, standing and sitting. God's remembrance means prayer and Monazat to Him. Without them, it ends in voice and tongue.
The object of fasting is to bring under control belly and sexual passion, or else it ends in depriving this body from food and drink. Body is tried by the troubles of pilgrimage. Troubles are given to mind if Zakat is paid out of wealth and thus mind is tried. There is no don't that the object of these religious acts is to remember God. If that object is not attained, there is no use in prayer, as it is very easy to move the tongue with inattention. The object of word is to talk and it does not occur except in mind. It does not exist in mind without humility of spirit and presence of mind. If you recite in prayer : Show us the right path, and if you are inattentive at that time, it is only the movement of your tongue and nothing else. The object of Quran reading and God's remembrance is to praise and glorify God and to entreat Him and invoke Him with humility of spirit, but if his mind remains absent at that time and does not know that He is present with whom he is speaking, it must be understood that his tongue
moves only owing to habit but he is far away from the object of prayer to enliven God's remembrance and with that to make firm the tie of faith.
Sifiyan Saori said : The prayer of one who has got no God-fear becomes void. Hasan Basari said : The prayer which is not said with attention hastens towards punishment. The Prophet said : There are many praying men whose prayers are written to the extent of one sixth or one tenth. In other words, the portion of prayer which is said with attention is only written. The sage Abdul Wahed said : The portion of prayer which is said with humidity of mind is accepted. This is the consensus of opinion of the sages. In short, earnestness of mind is the life of prayer.
LIFE OF PRAYER AND ITS INTERNAL CONDITION
There are many works signifying the life of prayer, humility of mind, understanding what is said, honour, hope and shame. (1) The meaning of humility or presence of mind is that the action and word must be the same in mind and there should be no other thought therein. When there is no other thing in mind which is concentrated only to one thing, there is earnestness or presence of mind. (2) When mind is not present in prayer, it does not remain idle and is concentrated to the thoughts of the worldly affairs with which it is immediately concerned. So there must be firm belief that prayer is a stepping stone to the next world which is everlasting. Presence of mind is gained only when it is realised and the world is considered as a merely temporary abode and insignificant.
(2) To understand the meaning of words uttered and to engage intellect to understand their meanings. The medicine of removing various thoughts that come in mind in prayers is to cut the root or to remove the reasons which cause different thoughts. He who loves a thing remembers that thing. For this reason, he who loves things other than God is not free from diverse thoughts in prayer.
(3) Honour of God is a condition of mind. It rises out of acquaintance of two things. The first thing is the knowledge of the glory of God. This is the root of faith, because the mind of one who does not firmly believe in His glory, is not given encouragement to honour Him. The second thing is to think
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oneself helpless and insignificant. From the knowledge of these two things, helplessness, modesty and fear of God arise and as a result honour for God arises in mind.
(4) Fear of God is a condition of mind which rises out of knowledge of God's power and His rewards and punishments. You must have knowledge that if God would have destroyed all past and present, nothing of His sovereignty would have reduced. It is to be seen along with that whatever dangers and difficulties God gave to His Prophet and friends, these are different from those on kinds, rulers and emperors. The more the knowledge about God, the more would be the fear of God.*
(5) Hope in God rises out of firm faith in the following matters-knowledge of God's mercy and gifts, knowledge of His creation and remembrance of Paradise through prayer.
(6) Shame arises out of knowledge of neglect in divine service and inability to fight for God. Human mind becomes humble in proportion of certainty of faith.
For this reason Hazrat Ayesha said : The Prophet talked with us and we also talked with him but when the time of prayer came, he could not recognise us and we did not recognise him. It is narrated that God said to Moses : 0 Moses, when you want to remember Me, remember Me in such a way that your limbs tremble and that you hold Me dear at the time of remembrance and rest satisfied. When you remember Me, keep your tongue behind your mind. When you stand before Me, stand before Me with fearful mind like the meanest slave and speak with Me with the tongue of a truthful man. God revealed to him : Tell your disobedient followers to remember Me. I took oath upon Myself that I shall remember one who remembers Me. When Abraham stood for prayer, voice of his heart was heard from a distance of two miles..An individual will be forgiven in the next world according to the qualities of his mind and not of his body. Nobody will get salvation except one who comes with a sound mind.
PROFITABLE MEDICINE FOR
MAKING MIND HUMBLE
Know, 0 dear reader, that a believer will declare God's glory and fear Him, hope in Him and be ashamed to Him for his sins. After his faith, a believer will not be free from these conditions.
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Although the strength of his mind will be according to the strength of his faith, yet there is no other cause except the following ones for the absence of his mind, random thoughts, heedness, absence of mind in Mozazat and absent-minded ness in prayer. This heedlessness in prayer arises out of engagement of mind in various thought. The medicine of keeping the mind present is to remove all thoughts and primarily to remove the root of these thoughts. There are two bases of this root and the
EXTERNAL ROOT: Thought catches what the ear hears or the eye sees and mind turns towards that thought. This causes to produce other thoughts. So the root of thought is eye and then the root of one thought is another thought. He whose niyyat is fine and aim high cannot be diverted by what occurs in his organs or limbs, but he who is weak falls a prey to it. Its medicine is to cut off these roots and to shut up the eyes, to pray in a dark room, not to keep anything in front which may attract attention and not to pray in a decorated place or a decorated and painted praying cloth. For this reason the sages used to do divine service in dark, narrow and unaspious rooms.
INTERNAL ROOT is very difficult. The thoughts of worldly matters are not confined to one subject. It goes from one thought to another. If they shut up their eyes, it does not do them any benefit. The way to remove them is to take one's mind to understand what is recited in prayer and to stick to it after giving up all other thoughts. The Prophet once told Osman-b-Ali Shaiba: I forgot to tell you to cover the screens of variegated colours in the room, because there should remain nothing in the house which can divert attention from prayer. If the rise of thoughts is not stopped by this method, then there is another easy method to prevent it. That is to cut off the root cause of the disease. It has been narrated that Abu Zaham presented a valuable dress of variegated colours to the Holy Prophet. He put on it and said prayer. Afterwards he took it off and said : Take if to Abu Zaham as it has diverted my attention from prayer. The Prophet had a ring of gold in his hand before it was unlawful. He threw it away when he was on the pulpit and said : My sight has fallen on it. It is said that Hazrat Abu Tallaha once prayed in his own garden which pleased him so much that he forgot how many rak'ats he prayed. He mentioned it to the Prophet and said : 0
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Prophet of God, I wish to gift this garden. The Prophet said : Give it to whom you like. Once a man was praying in his garden in which dates were hanging. It pleased him so much that he forgot how many rak'ats he prayed. He mentioned it to Hazrat Osman who said : Spend it in the way of God. Hazrat Osman purchased it for fifty thousand coins. Thus they used to cut off the root of their thoughts and expiated the loss in prayers. This is the medicine for cutting the root of the disease of mind. To bring sexual passion under temporary control is not so benefiting. Its root must be cut as it baffles the whole prayer. The following illustration is given. In a certain tree numerous sparrows used to make tremendous noise as they had their nests in it. A traveler began to drive them away being disgusted with their noise. They fled away for the time being but came again to make greater noise. It he wants to get himself relieved of the noise permanently, he should cut the tree. The sparrows will make noise till the tree lasts. Similarly attachment to a thing may temporarily be removed from mind, but it will come again and disturb the mind. Attachment to the world is the root of all thoughts, the primary cause of all losses. If one wants a peaceful mind in prayer, he should cut off all attachments of the world. If one is engaged in worldly matters, he should not expect to get taste in invocations.
MEANING OF DIFFERENT ITEMS OF PRAYER'AZAN': When you hear the call to prayer, think of the general call on the Resurrection day and look to your external and internal matters when replying and make haste. Those who respond in haste to this call, will get reply°with mercy on that fearful day. So keep your mind on Azan.
MEANING OF CLEANLINESS: When you make your praying cloth pure and clean and your body clean of impurities, don't be indifferent to make your mind pure. Make it pure of impure ideas and thoughts as far as possible, Repent for what you have failed to do and determine not to do it in future. So make your heart pure as it is the object of sight of your Lord.
Meaning of covering private parts. The meaning of covering private parts is to cover your private parts from the sight of men. God looks to your heart. So cover the faults of your heart and know that it is not secret from the sight of God. Your repentance, shame and fear will expiate it. Stand before God just like a
fugitive slave who returned to his master being repentant with humility of spirit and bent down head.
MEANING OF FACING THE KA'BA: The meaning of turning your face towards the Ka'ba is to turn your mind towards God after taking it off from all directions and all evil thoughts. Move the external organs to move your secret mind and keep them under control of mind. Keep the face of your mind towards God along with the face of your body. The Prophet said : When a man stands iri prayer and directs his hope, face and mind towards God, he comes out of his prayer as on the day his mother gave birth to him.
MEANING OF STANDING IN PRAYER: Its external meaning is to stand before God with body and mind. You shall
` bend down your head which is higher than your other limbs. The meaning of this bending down of your head is to bend down your. mind free from all self-conceit and pride. Know that you are standing before the mighty and greatest Emperor. You fear king but you don't fear God although He is fit to be feared most. For this reason Hazrat Abu Bakr asked the Prophet : How should we be shameful to God ? He said : You should be shameful to God just as you become shameful to see the most God-fearing man among you.
MEANING OF NIYYAT: Promise firmly that you will respond to God's orders through prayer, make it perfect and make niyyat sincerely for Him and keep an eye with whom you are speaking secretly, how you talk and for what matter. At this time your head should perspire, your limbs should tremble and the colour of your face should become changed.
MEANING OF TAKBIR: When your tongue utter Takbir, let not your mind speak falsehood. Your mind should correspond with your tongue in declaring Him to be the greatest. If you have got in mind something which is greater than God, God will attest that you area liar.
MEANING OF OPENING DOS: 'I turn my face towards the Creator of heavens and earth.' To turn face towards the Ka'ba means to turn it towards God. God exists every where and so to turn towards the Ka'ba means to turn towards the only object of your life, towards the Almighty after giving up all things. When you recite 'I am not of the polytheists,' your mind harbours then
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secret shirk as God says : If any body wishes to meet with his Lord, let him do good deeds and do not set up any partner in His divine service: This was revealed with respect to a person who wants divine service and also the praise of men. So take care of this shirk. When you utter-'My life and my death are for God', know then that this condition is of the slave who safeguard the existence of his master in lieu of his existence. When you utter-'I seek refuge to God,' you should give up your low desires and temptations. You should then take firm resolution to take refuge to the fort of God giving up the fort of the devil. The Prophet said God said 'There no deity but God' is My fort. He who enters My fort is safe from My punishment. God protects one who has got no deity but God. He who takes his low desires as his deity lives in the fort of the devil and not in the fort of God.
MEANING OF QURAN READING: Regarding this matter, men are of three classes-(1) he who moves his tongue but his mind is heedless, (2) he who moves his tongue and his mind follows his tongue, this is the rank of the fortunate, (3) he whose tongue is directed first towards understanding the meaning and then his minds take his tongue as its servant. Tongue will give
expression of mind.
MEANING OF OTHER ITEMS: When you utter-'I begin in the name of the Most Compassionate, the Most Merciful', seek first the favour of God. When you say 'Thou are the Lord of Judgment day,' understand then that there is no sovereignty except His sovereignty and fear His judgment. Express your helplessness by saying "Thee do we worship' and understand that religious acts do not become easy except with His assistance.
It is said that when Zan:ah-b-Auf finished reciting 'when the trumpet will be blown, he fell down senseless and died. When Ibrahim Nahhyi heard this verse, 'when the sky will be rent asunder' he began to tremble seriously. So read the Quran slowly and attentively so that it becomes easy to understand. The Prophet said : God remains with the praying man till he does not look to and fro. As it is your duty to protect your head and eyes, so it is compulsory on you to restrain your mind in prayer from thoughts other than God. When you look towards any other thing, remember then that God sees your condition. If you are absent minded at the time of monazat, it is very bad. Keep the fear of God within your mind. Hazrat Abu Bakr used to stand in
prayer just like a statue. Some used to remain in Ruku like a motionless stone, so mush so that birds sat on his head. The Prophet said : Pray as if it is your farewell prayer, having in mind fear and shame owing to defects in prayers. and fear that your prayer may not be accepted and that it may be thrown on your face with your express and secret sins. There is in Hadis that when a man stands in prayer, God lifts up the screen between Him and His servant and faces him. The angels climb upon his two shouldes and pray in horizon along with him and says 'Ameen' along with his invocation. They spread virtues over the scalp of his head. from above the horizon. A proclaimer Proclaims: If this invoker had known to whom he is invoking, he would not have looked to and fro. The doors of heaven are opened up for aa praying man and God takes pride before His angels for the praying man. So the doors of heaven are opened up for him and the face of God comes before his face. In other words, his Kashf is opened. There is written in the Torah : 0 son of Adam don't be baffled to stand up before Me in prayer in weeping state, because then I come near your mind and you also see My light unseen. He said: The softness, weeping and victory which a praying man feels in his mind, bespeak of the advent of God in his mind. When His nearness is not the nearness of space, there is no meaning of it except the nearness of mercy, guidance and removal of evils.
God says : Those believers got salvation who fear God in their prayers. Then He praised them with their speciality of prayer. It is connected with God fear. Then he described the qualities of those who got salvation through prayer, as God says Those who guard their prayers, Then He says : They will inherit the garden of Ferdous. They will abide therein. If tongue is moved with inattention, can this reward be achieved ? The praying one will inherit the gardens, they will directly see divine light and they will enjoy the happiness of nearness.
STORIES OF THE PRAYERS OF
Know, 0 dear readers, that God-fear is the result of real faith and belief. He who has keen given it, fears God in and out of prayer, when he remains alone and even at the time of calls of nature, because he who fears God knows it well that He knows the condition of mind and his sins and faults. Fear grows in the
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mind of one who knows this and it is not limited only in prayer. It is narrated that a sage did not raise up his head for forty years being ashamed and fearful of God. The saint Rabi-b-Khasem used to close up his eyes so tightly that the people would think that he was blind. He used to go to the house of Ibn Masud for twenty years. Whenever his female slave saw him, she used to say to her master. Your blind friend has come. At this Hazrat Ibn . Masud used to laugh. Whenever he used to knock at the door, the female slave would come to him and see him with closed eyes. Hazrat Ibn Masud told him : Give good news to those who are humble By God. Had the Prophet seen you he would have surely been pleased with you. One day he went with Ibn Masud to the shop of a blacksmith. When he saw him blowing and fire coming out, he at once fell down senseless. Ibn Masud sat near his head up to the prayer time but still he did not regain his senses. Then he bore him to his house and he did not recover sense till his prayer for five times passed away. Ibn Masud sat by his head and said : By God this is real God-fear.
The saint Rubi said : I did not observe such prayer in which I had other thing in mind except what I uttered and what was said to me. Hazrat Amer-b-Abdullah feared God in prayer verymuch. When he prayed, his daughter beat drum and the women of the house hold conversation but he did not hear them. One day he was told : Does your mind think any matter in prayer ? He said, Yes, it thinks about its stay before God and going from this world into another world, He was told : Do you see what we generally see about the affairs of the world ? He said : I consider it better that my teeth should go from one side to another than what you see. This is not attention in prayer.
Moslem-b-Yasar was one of them, it is said that while he was one day praying within a mosque, one of its corners fell down but he did not come to know of it. The limb of a certain pious man was damaged and it required operation but it was not at all possible. Some said : When he prays, he will not be able to feel its pangs, Accordingly the limb was operated while he was engaged in prayer. Some said : Prayer belongs to the next world. When you enter prayer, go out of the world. Hazrat Abu Darda said : It is the rule of religion that when a man goes to prayer, he should perform all his necessary things,. so that his mind becomes free from
thoughts. The Prophet said: The prayer of a man is not written except its one third, half, one-fourth, one fifth, one sixth or one tenth. Hesaid:Whatissaid inprayerwithunderstandingisonly written for him, Hazrat Omar once said from his pulpit : The head of two sides of a man becomes grey, yet he does notobserve prayer for pleasure of God. He was asked: How does it occur ? He said: His God-fear, modestyand his self-surrender for God do not become perfect. Abid Ahiya was onceasked: Whatis the meaning of heedlessness in prayer ? He said : One commits mistakes in his prayer and does not know how many rak'ats he has prayed. The sage Hasan Basari said in its explanation : He forgets the time of prayer. Jesus Christ said : God says : My servant gets salvation by observing compulsory duties, but he gains My nearness by doing optional duties. The Prophet said: God says : My servant will not get salvation till he fulfills the compulsoryluties.
SECTION 4 IMAMATE
There are six duties of Imam before prayer. (1) He shall' not be an Imam of people unless they give consent to it. If they differ, an Imam would be elected by a majority. If the minority are religious and good, their opinion should be followed. There is in Hadis : The prayer of three persons will not go up beyond their heads (1) a fugitive slave, (2) a woman whose husband is displeased with her, and (3) an Imam with whom his people are dis-satisfied. The Imam is a guarantee for his followers, (2) When a man is given option between Azan and Imamate, he should prefer Imamate as the office of an Imam ii better than that of a Muazzem. Some say that Azan is better as there are many merits of Azan. The Prophet said : An Imam is a surety for his followers and Muazzen is an object of trust. He said : The Imam is an object of trust. When he bends down, the followers bend down and when he prostrates, they prostrate. He said : When he fulfills the prayer, it is for him and for them also. If there is defect in it, it goes against him and against them also. For, this reason, the Prophet said : 0 God, show the straight path to the Imams and forgive the Muazzens.
The Prophet said: Paradise becomes sure for one without account who is Imam for seven years. He who proclaims Azan for
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forty years 'will enter into Paradise without account. The Prophet, Hazrats Abu Bakr and Omar used to fix salary for an Imam. The Prophet said. One day of a just ruler is better than divine service for seventy years. The Prophet said : Your Imams are your intercessors. He said : Your Imam are representatives of God on your behalf. If you wish to purify your prayer, place in front the best man among you. Some earlier sages said : There is no better man after the Prophet than the learned except the praying Imams, as they stand between God and His servants, some with Prophethood, some with learning and some with prayer, the pillar of religion. By this proof, the companions elected Abu Bakr as their Imam. They then said : We have considered that prayer is a pillar of religion on whom the Prophet was pleased for this pillar. They did not select Bilal as the Prophet selected him for Azan. It is reported that a man asked the Prophet: Give me clue to such an action which will lead me to Paradise. He said : Be Muazzen. He said : I can't do it. he said : Then be Imam. He said: 1 can't do it He said : Then pray behind an Imam.
(3) The Imam shall observe the times of prayers and shall pray for pleasure of God in their earliest times. The Prophet said : The Imam who prays at the last time of a prayer, does not miss it, but what he misses in its earliest time is better than the world and its treasures. It is not good to delay prayer in expectation of a greater number of men. One day, there was some delay for the morning prayer on the part of the Prophet when he was in a journey. The companions did not wait for the Prophet when he made delay in making ablution. The Prophet then said : You have done better. Do it always.
(4) Act as an Imam for the sake of God and fulfill with good manners the trust of God in the other conditions of prayer and act as an Imam with sincere intention and don't take for it remuneration. The Prophet said Osman-b-Affan : Appoint such a Muazzen who will not take remuneration for his Azan. Azan guides to the path of prayer and it is better not to receive its remuneration. Hazrat Sufiyan said : Pray behind a religious or irreligious man except behind habitual drunkard, or cursed man, or one disobedient to parents, or an invocator or a fugitive slave.
(5) Don't utter Takbir till row is arranged straight and look to right and left. The Prophet said : A Muazzen should wait
between Azan and Aqamat for so long as an eater eats or a man passes calls of nature. So he prohibited to retain urine and stool. He ordered to finish dinners for peace of mind before Isha prayer.
(6) An Iman shall raise his voice in the time of Takbir Tahrima and other Takbirs as well but a follower will utter it in a low voice. The Imam has got three duties at the time of Quran reading in prayer. (1) He should recite the opening Doa and Aauzobillah in silent voice and recite loudly the Fateha and Suras in congregational prayer of Fajr, Isha and Magrib. One should do it even at the time when he prays alone. When he recites Ameen with voice, the followers will recite it loudly.
MERITS OF JUMMA PRAYER
Know, 0 dear readers, that Jumma day is a holy day. God, honoured Islam therewith and gave glory to. the Muslims. God says : When there is Azan for prayer on the Jumma day, run towards remembrance of God and give up buy and sale. The Prophet said : God has made compulsory on you on this day of mine and in this place of mine. The Prophet said : If a man loses three Jumas without any excuse, God puts a seal in his mind. In another narration :'He throws Islam on his back. The Prophet said : Gebriel came to me with a clean mirror in his hand and said This is Jumma. God has made it obligatory on you, so that it may be a festival for you and after you for you followers. I said : What good there is for us in it ? He said : You have got an suspicious time in it. If a man seeks anything to God at this time, God has promised that He will give it to him. If he is deprived of that, many additional things are given to him in that connection. If any man wants to save himself from any evil on that day, God saves him from a greater calamity or a like calamity which has been decreed on him. Jumma day is the best day to us and we shall call it on the Resurrection day as the day of grace. I asked him : What object is there in calling it as the day of grace ? He said: Your God has made a valley in paradise made of white musk. When the Jumma day comes, God descends on His Throne in Illyyin and sheds His lusture and they look on towards His august face. The Prophet said : The sun rose for the first time on the best Jumma day and Hazrat Adam was created on that day. He entered
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Paradise first on that day and he was thrown in to this world on that day and his pensance was accepted on that day. He died on this day and Resurrection will take place on this day. This day is a day of blessing to God. The heavens and angels have been given names on this day. There is a Hadis that God will release six lacs of men from Hell on this day. The Prophet said : When the Jumma day is safe, all the days remain safe. He said : If a man dies on the Jumma day or night, the rewards of one martyrdom are written for him and the punishment of grave is forgiven.
CONDITIONS OF JUMMA PRAYER
Ten rules should be observed on the Jumma day. (1) It is better to prepare for the Jumma day from Thursday. After Asr of Thursday, turn attention to invocation, seeking forgiveness and Tasbih as the merits of this time are equal to those of the auspicious unknown time of Friday, (2) Make your clothes clean on this day, use scent and keep your mind free from anxieties so that you may rise up with a free mind on Friday morning. Try to fast on this day as there is a great merit in it. Pass Thursday night by reading the Quran and praying. The Prophet said : God shows mercy on the man who rises in the morning and awakes others, takes bath and causes the baths of others (3) Take bath 'in the morning of Friday. The Prophet said : It is obligatory on every mature man to take bath on Friday. He said : Let one who attends Jumma take bath. he said : Let one male or female who attends Jumma prayer take bath.
(4) If is commendable to take recourse to beauty on this day to take fine dress, to be pure and to use scent. Regarding purity, cleanse your teeth, cut your hairs; slip-your mustache and -do everything necessary for purity. Hazrat Ibn Masud said: If a man manicures nails on the Jumma day, God takes out disease therefrom and gives him cure therein. Regarding dress, wear white dress as it is dear to God. To use turban is commendable. The Prophet said: God and His angels bless those who wear turban on the Jumma day.
(5) It is commendable to go to the congregational mosque. in the morning. The Prophet said: He who goes to Jumma in the early part gets rewards of the sacrifice of a camel and he who goes at the second time gets the rewards of the sacrifice of a cow and he who goes at the third time gets the reward of the sacrifice of a
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goat and he who goes at the fourth time gets the reward of the sacrifice of a cock. He who goes at the fifth stage gets the reward of the charity, of an egg. When the Imam gets up for khutba, record is folded up and pen is lifted up. The angels gather together wear the pulpit and hear the Zikr of God. The Prophet said: There are three things. If the people had known what good there is therein, they would have come to search it like a camel-Azan, first row and going to the congregational mosque at dawn. In the first century, the pathway became full of men from early hours up to dawn. The prophet used to come out with light and the mosque became filled up with men like the day of I'd. It became obsolete afterwards. It is said that the innovation of giving up the practice of going to the mosque at dawn first entered into Islam. It is a matter of regret that the Jews and the Christians go to their synayogues and churches at dawn on Saturday and Sunday respectively and the worldly people go to markets for buy and sale at dawn but those who seek the next world cannot go to mosque at dawn.
(6) Ranks of entering a mosque: Nobody should go to the front row of the mosque crossing the necks of men. The Prophet said: On the resurrect on day such a person will be made a bridge and the people would tread over him. Once when the Prophet was reciting khutba, he noticed that a man was advancing towards the front row after crossing over the necks of man. After finishing prayer, the Prophet called him and said: 0 such a person, what prevented you to pray Jumma with me today. He said: 0 Prophet of God, I prayed with you. The Prophet said: Have I not found you to cross over the necks of men? He hinted by this that his action has become void. In another narration, the Prophet said to him: What prevented you to pray with me? He said: 0 Prophet of God, have you not seen me? The Prophet said: I have seen you coming late and giving trouble to the people present. In other words you have delayed to come at dawn and have given trouble to those present.
(7) Don't go to the mosque by the front of a praying man, keep wall or pillar or stick in front when praying so that the people may not pass by your front. The Prophet said: His waiting for 40 years is better than his going by the front of men. The Prophet said: It is better for any man to be powdered to earth to
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be blown off by air like refuges than to cross the front of a praying man.
(8) Try to take seat in the first row. There is in Hadis: If a man takes bath and tells another to take bath, if a man rises early and makes another awake early and goes near the Imam and hears, the sins which he has committed between two Jumma and additional three days become expiration for him.
(9) Prayer should be stopped at the time when the Imam gets upon the pulpit. The prophet said: If a man says to another at the time when the Imam delivers address 'Be silent', he holds useless talk. The Jumma of one who holds useless talk is not performed.
(10) Follow the Imam in Jumma. When the jumma is finished, recite before talk the chapters 'Alham do Lillah' seven times, 'Ikhlas' seven times., 'Falaq' seven times and Nas seven times. A certain sage said: He who does this remains safe,up to the next Jumma from the devil.
GOOD DEEDS ON JUMMA DAY
(1) Be present at the assembly of learning at dawn or after prayer. There is ahadis that to remain present in an assembly of learning is better than optional prayer of one thousand rak'ats.
(2) To medidate well for the auspicious moment. There is in an well known Hadis: There is a time on Jumma day in which a Muslim is granted what he seeks. There is in another Hadis: He who prays does not lose it. There is difference of opinion about this auspicious moment. Some say it is at the time of sun-rise. Some say it is after noon, some say, it is at the time of Azan. Some say it is when the Imam gets upon his pulpit and begins his address. Some say it is at the last time of Asr prayer. Some say it spreads for the day like the Blessed night. So one who seeks it should remain in meditation throughout the day. Some say it is intermingled with every time of Jumma day. This is the correct view. This is supported by the following Hadis: There is a day among your days when your Lord gives out breath. Be prepared for that day. This is Jumma day among the days.
(3) It is commendable to recite Darud this day on the Prophet. The Prophet said: If a man sends Darud to me eighty times on Jumma day, God forgives his minor faults for eighty years, He was asked: 0 Prophet of God, what is Darud upon you? He said:
Say: 0 God, bless Muhammad, Thy servant, Thy Prophet and Thy Apostle, the illiterate Prophet.
(4) Recite the Quran more in this day specially chapter Qahaf. The Prophet said: If a man recites the chapter Qahaf on the Jumma day or night, he is given such light which is visible from Mecca and his sins are forgiven up to the next Jumma and the merits of three days in addition are given to him and seventy thousand angels bless him till dawn. He is saved from diseases, pains of stomach, pleurisy, tuberculosis and the trials of Dajjal.
(5) It is commendable to recite Darud at the time of entering mosque and not to sit till one prays four rakats reciting therein Ikhlas fifty times in each rakat. The Prophet said: He who prays such, will not die till he is shown his place in paradise.
(6) It is commendable to give charities on Juman day. The merits are increased manifold.
(7) Keep yourself engaged in divine service for the whole Jumma day after giving up worldly duties.
PRAYERS OTHER THAN OBLIGATORY PRAYERS
There are three kinds of other prayers - Sunnat, Mustahab (commendable) and Nafi (optional). Sunnat prayer is such prayer which the Prophet observed for all times, such as the prayers after obligatory prayers. Mustahab prayer is such prayer of which the excellence has been described by Hadis and which the Prophet did not observe always. Nafl prayer is such prayer which does not fall within the first two categories. What a man prays willingly for pleasure of God other than the above prayers is optional.
SUNNAT PRAYER: There are eight Sunnat prayers among which five are said along with five times of prayer and, three in addition - forenoon prayer, Tahajjud prayer and prayer between Magrib and Isha.
(1) Two rakat sunnat before Fajr prayer. The Prophet said: Two rak'ats of Sunnat prayer before Fajr is better than the world and what is in it.
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(2) Six rak'ats of Sunnat prayers of Zuhr-four rak'ats before it and two after it. The Prophet said: He who prays four rak'ats after declining of the sun and makes Ruku and prostration well and recites the Quran well, seventy thousand angels pray.for him and seek forgiveness for him up to night. The Prophet said: If a man prays 12 rak'ats daily besides the obligatory prayers, a building will be built for him in Paradise - two'rak'ats before Fajar, 4 rakats before Zuhr and two rak'ats before Asr and two rakats after Magrib.
(3) Four rak'ats before Asr. The Prophet said: 0 God, have mercy on the man who prays four rak'ats before Asr.
(4) Two rak'ats after magrib.
(5) Four rak'ats after Isha. Hazrat Ayesha reported that the Prophet used to go to bed after praying 4 rak'ats after Isha.
Many learned men said after collecting all traditions that there are seventeen rak'ats of Sunnat prayers - two rak'ats before Fajr, four rak'ats before Zuhr and two rak'ats after it, four rak'ats before Asr, two rak'ats after Magrib and three rak'ats after Isha.
(6) Bitr prayer: Hazrat Anas said: The Prophet used to pray three rak'ats of Bitr after Isha reciting therein 'Sabbehesme Rubbihil Ala' in the first rak'at, Kaferun in the second raka't and Ikhlas in the third rakat.
(7) Forenoon prayer. It is up to eight rak'ats. Hazrat Ayesha said that the Prophet used to pray four rak'ats in the forenoon and sometimes increased it.
(8) Prayer between Magrib and Isha. The Prophet said: There are six rakat prayers between Magrib and Isha of which the merits are great. The Prophet said that this prayer is included with the prayer of Awabin.
OPTIONAL PRAYERS IN WEEKLY DAYS
SUNDAY: The Prophet said: If a man prays four rak'ats on Sunday and recitesa in each rak'ats the opening chapter and Amaner Rasul, innumerable merits are written for him like the number of Christian males and females. The Prophet said: Proclaim the unity of God by many prayers on Sunday as God is one and there is no partner for him.
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MONDAY: The Prophet said: If a man prays two rak'ats in the early part of Monday reciting Fateha once in each rak'at, Ayatul Kursi once, Ikhlas once, Nas once, Falaq once and then after salam Istigfar twelve times and Darud twelve times, God forgives all his sins. The Prophet said: If a man prays 12 rak'ats on Monday and recites in each rak'at Sura Fateha and Ayatul Kursi and when he finishes prayer recites Ikhlas 12 times and Istigfar 12 times, he will be said on the Resurrection day: 0 son of so and so, rise up and take rewards from God. The first reward that willbe rewarded to him is one thousand dresses, one throne on his head and he will be said: Enter Paradise. One lac angels will greet him and each angel will have one present and they will accompany him and they will carry him to one thousand palaces of light.
TUESDAY: The Prophet said: If a man prays ten rak'ats in the early part of Tuesday with Fateha and Ayatul Qursi and Ikhlas three times in each rak'at, his faults will not be written for seventy days. If he dies on the last day, he dies a martyr and his sins for seventy, years will be forgiven.
WEDNESDAY: The Prophet said: If a man prays 12 rak'ats after rising on Wednesday and recites in each rak'at Fateha and Ayatul Qursi once and Ikhlas three times, Nas and Falaq. each three times,' a proclaimer will proclaim near the Throne, 0 servant of God, your actions have been accepted and your future sins forgiven. Punishment of the Resurrection day will be lifted up from you and you will be given the actions of a Prophet on that day.
THURSDAY: The Prophet said: If a man recites between Juhr and Asr two rak'ats with fateha and Ayatul Qursi in the first rak'at one hundred times, Fateha and Ikhlas in the second rak'at one hundred times and Darud one hundred times, God will reward him with fasting of Rajab, Shaban and Ramzan,the rewards of one Haj and innumertable virtues will be written for him.
FRIDAY: The Prophet said: There is a prayer on the Jumma day. When the sun rises up to one bow's distance or more and if a . believing man makes full ablution and prays two rak'ats with faithand hoping for reward, God writes for him two hundred virtues and effaces from him two hundred sins. If a man prays
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four rak'ats, God will open for him in Paradise 800 doors and forgive all his sins. If a man prays 12 rakats, 1200 merits will be written for him and 1200 sins will be effaced from him and there will be for him 1200 doors in Paradise. The Prophet said: If a man on Jumma day enters the mosque and prays four rak'ats after Jumma prayer with Fateha 50 times and Ikhlas 50 times in each rak'at, he will not die till he sees his place in paradise or it is shown' to him.
SATURDAY: The Prophet said: If a man prays four rak'ats on Saturday with Fateha once and Ikhlas three times and then Ayatul Qursi in each rakat, God will write for him for every word one Haj and one Umrah and one year's fasting and prayer for each word and he will reside with the Prophets and martyrs under the Throne of God.
OPTIONAL PRAYERS IN WEEKLY NIGHTS
SUNDAY NIGHT: The Prophet said: If a man prays 20 rak'ats in the night of Sunday with Fatiha and Ikhlas 50 times, Nas and Falaq once in each rak'at and recites Istigfar one hundred times and recites Istigfar for himself and his parents and Darud one hundred times and takes refer to God by realizing himself from his own strength and then says: I bear witness that there is no deity but God and I bear witness that Adam is the chosen one of God and His natural creation, that Abraham is His friend, Moses is Kalimulla, Jesus is the Spirit of God and Muhammad is the friend of God, he will get merits as innumerable as the persons who made calumny against God before and who did not make calumny and on the Resurrection day he will be raised along with the believers and it will be the duty of God to admit him in Paradise along with the Prophets.
MONDAY NIGHT: The Prophet said: If a man prays 4 rakat in the night of Monday with Fatiha and Ikhlas ten times in the first rakat, Fatiha and Ikhlas twenty times in the second rak'at, Fatiha and Ikhlas thirty times in the third rak'at and Fatiha and Ikhlas forty times in the fourth rak'at and then returns salam and afterwards recites Ikhlas 75 times and seeks Istigfar for himself and his parents 75 times and then prays for his needs to God, He accepts his invocation.
TUESDAY NIGHT: The Prophet said: He who prays two rak'ats therein with chapters Fatiha and Ikhlas 15 times, Nas 15
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times, Falaq 15 times, Ayatul Qursi 11 times, Istigfar 15 times, will get ample rewards. The Prophet said: He who prays in Tuesday night two rak'ats with Fateha in each rak'at followed by chapter Ikhlas seven times, God will release him from Hell and it will be for him on the Resurrection day guide and proof.
WEDNESDAY NIGHT: The Prophet said: He who prays two rak'ats in Wednesday night with Fatiha and Falaq ten times in the first rak'at and Fatiha and Nas ten times in the second rak'at and then after finishing it reads Istigfar ten times and then Darud ten times, seventy thous-and angels come down for him from every heaven and write for him rewards upto the Resurrection Day.
THURSDAY NIGHT. The Prophet said : He who prays two rak'ats between Magrib and Isha with Fatiha and Ayatul Qursi five times, Falaq five times, Nas five times and after prayer Istigfar 15 times and bestows them for his parents, obeys his duties towards his parents although he was disobedient to them before. God gives him what He gives to the siddiqs and martyrs.
FRIDAY NIGHT: The Prophet said: He who prays 12 rak'ats between Magrib and Isha with Fatiha and Ikhlas 11 times, prays as it were for 12 years for the nights and fasted for the days.1he prophet said: Send many Daruds in Jumma day and night.
SATURDAY NIGHT: The Prophet said: He who prays 12 rak'ats between Magrib and Isha, a mansion is built for him in Paradise, he gets rewards of charity to each male and female, gets release from the Jews and it becomes the duty of God to forgive him.
OPTIONAL ANNUAL PRAYERS
Such, prayers are four - (1) Prayers of two I'ds or festivals, (2) Tarawih prayers, (3) Prayer in Rajab, and (4) Prayer in Shaban.
(2) PRAYER OF TWO I'DS: They are Sunnat Muaqqadah and there are several duties in them. Take bath in the morning of I'd day, take dresses and use scents. Go by one way and return by another. The Prophet used to observe it. He used to order the servants, slaves and women to come out for prayers on these days. It is better to pray I'd prayers in open fields except Mecca and Baitul Muqaddas. The time runs from sun-rise to sun decline at noon. The time for animal sacrifice on Idul Azha runs from
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after the prayer to the end of the 13th day of Zilhaj. I'd charity is to be given before prayer.
The form of prayer runs as follows. The Imam will pray two rak'ats with six Takbirs in addition, three in the first rak'at and three in the second. The Imam will then deliver sermon and then make Monazat,
(2) TARAWITH PRAYER: It consists of twenty rak'ats. It maybe said also in congregation. The Holy Prophet sometimes prayed it alone and sometimes in congregation. He said; I fear this prayer may be imposed on you as a compulsory duty. It was Hazrat Omar who directed the Muslims to observe it in congregation. The Prophet said: As it is more meritorious to observe compulsory prayer in mosque than in houses, so it is more meritorious to observe optional prayers in houses than in mosques. The Prophet said: The merits of one rak'at prayer in this mosque of mine is one thousand times greater than observing it in other mosques and the merits of one rak'at of prayer in the mosque of the Ka'ba is better than one thousand times than observing it in my mosque. The prayer of one who prays in a corner of his house and knows nobody than God is better than all these prayers. It is better however to pray Tarawih in congregation as Hazrat Omar did it.
(3) PRAYER IN RAJAB: The Prophet said: One who fasts five days in Rajab, prays twelve rak'ats between Magrib and Isha with a unit of two rak'ats (which certain formalities as prescribed), his invocation is accepted.
(4) PRAYER IN SHABAN: It is observed in the night of the 15th Shaban. There are one hundred rak'ats of prayer with a unit of two rak'ats. The earlier sages used to observe this prayer.
FOURTH KIND OF OPTIONAL PRAYERS
These prayers are connected with causes and they are nine in number (1) Prayer of solar and (2) lunar eclipses, (3) prayer for rain, (4) funeral prayer (5) prayer for entering into mosque, (6) prayer of ablution, (7) two rakats between Azan and Aqamat,. (8) two rak'ats at the time of coming out of house for journey and two rak'ats at the time of entry into house after journey and (9) prayer for seeking good called Istakhara prayer.
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PRAYER FOR SOLAR AND LUNAR ECLIPSE: The Prophet said: Solar and lunar eclipses are two signs out of the signs of God. They do not occur for birth or death of anybody. When you see it, turn towards the remembrance of God and prayer. He said it when his son Ibrahim died and people ascribed it to the above ' cause.
PRAYER FOR RAIN: The Prophet used to observe this prayer coming out in the open field when there was drought and want of rain for a continued long time. This should be preceded by fast for three days and then on the fourth day prayer be said in the open field in congregation for rain with the greatest humility of spirit and earnestness of mind and then invocation should be made in the following manner: 0 God, Thou hast commanded us to invoke Thee and Thou hast promised us to accept it. We have indeed invoked Thee as Thou hast commanded us. So accept our invocation as Thou hast promised us. 0 God, shower blessing on us with Thy forgiveness and accept our invocation by sending us rain and giving us ample provision.
FUNERAL PRAYER: This prayer is Farze Kefaya or binding on community as a whole. It is optional only for one who is exempted owing to the presence of some members of the community. in the prayer. The Prophet said: It forty Muslims who do not set up partnership with God attend the funeral prayer of a Muslim, God accepts their intercession for him. Follow the bier after prayer up to the grave and recite the following after entering in the grave-yard. Peace be on you, 0 the inmates of these house of the believers and Muslims. May God show mercy on those who have gone before and who have come latter. We shall reach you if God wills. Then standing by the side of the grave of the person just buried, recite the following: 0 God, Thy servant has returned to Thee. Be kind to him and show him mercy. 0 God, remove the earth from his two sides and open the doors of heaven for his soul and accept it with good acceptance. 0 God, if he is a virtuous man, increase his virtues manifold and if he is a sinner, forgive him.
PRAYER AFTER ENTRY INTO MOSQUE: It is two rakats or more and prayer after ablution is also two rak'ats. The Prophet said: I saw Bilal in Paradise and asked him: For what action have you entered Paradise before me? He said: I know nothing except the fact that I prayed two rak'ats after every ablution.
162 THE BOOK OF WORSHIP Vol-I
At the time of coming out of the house and entering it after journey, pray two rak'ats. The Prophet said: Pray two rak'ats when you go out of your house so that you may be saved from the harms of going out. The Prophet said: When any special work is not begun with the name of God, it goes without blessing;
ISTAKHARAH PRAYER: This prayer is said before an action is undertaken to know whether it will be good or bad. It is of two rak'ats with Chapter Kaferun in the first rak'at ;and chapter Ikhlas in the second and at the end with the following invocation: 0 God, I wish to know its good or bad with the help of Thy knowledge and I pray for strength from Thee and I pray for Thy abundant mercy, as Thou knowest and I don't know and Thou knowest the unseen. 0 God, if Thou knowest that this affair will be for my worldly or next worldly good and for the result of my affairs sooner or latter, give strength to me, give me blessing therein and then make it easy for me. If Thou knowest that this affair of mine will be bad for me for my world, next world and the result of my affairs sooner or latter, turn me from it and it from me. Thou art powerful over all things. The Prophet said: If any man among you proposes to do a thing, let him pray two rak'ats, name the project and invoke with the above invocation.
(8) PRAYER FOR NECESSITY: If a matter becomes necessary for his religion or for his world, let him pray twelve rak'ats for fulfillment of his necessity with Ayatul Qursi and Ikhlas in each rak'at and at the end of the prayer of two rak'ats, let
him invoke as prescribed.
(9) PRAYER FOR TASBIH: It is also called Doa, Masurah. The Prophet said to Hazrat Abbas: Shall I not make gift to you? Shall I not show kindness on you? Shall I not love you with such a thing which, if you do, will be a cause for God to forgive your past and future sins, old and new sins, open and secret evils? Pray four rak'ats (as prescribed).
====== THE END OF CHAPTER 4 - VOLUME ONE======
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